Drug treatment for hypertensive patients in special situations: diabetes and hypertension.Clin Exp Hypertens 1999 Jul-Aug; 21(5-6):895-906CE
Diabetes mellitus and hypertension is often associated, but with a different type of development in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, renal disease, starting with microalbuminuria, is associated with increasing blood pressure or hypertension, whereas the patient without renal disease is most often normotensive. Poor metabolic control is a predictor of microalbuminuria or incipient nephropathy, but with microalbuminuria hypertension is an important risk factor for progression along with poor glycemic control. The same is the case for overt renal disease, and metabolic control is important in all stages of renal disease in type 1 diabetes. It has also been shown that good metabolic control as well as antihypertensive treatment, especially with ACE-inhibitors, often combined with other agents is quite effective in preventing progression in renal disease in all its stages. In type 2 diabetes, blood pressure elevation is often found as early as at the actual diagnosis, and blood pressure significantly increases according to the degree of albuminuria, normo-microalbuminuria and clinical proteinuria (macroalbuminuria). Elevated blood pressure is an important risk for renal disease but more importantly so also for cardiovascular disease. Several studies document that antihypertensive treatment in particular with ACE-inhibitors is important in preventing microalbuminuria, in treating microalbuminuria and thus preventing progression, also in overt renal disease. Near-normalization of blood pressure is vital. Regarding cardiovascular disease, a series of studies now document that antihypertensive treatment with various antihypertensive agents is able to significantly reduce a number of major cardiovascular complications in diabetes, such as cardiac disease, stroke, and also microvacular disease, including retinopathy. Several studies show that antihypertensive treatment should be started at a level higher than 140-150/90. The blood pressure to be achieved during treatment is probably around 140/85 mmHg or even 130/80 mmHg as a pragmatic goal. However, there is no sign of a J-shaped curve in any of the studies, and therefore even lower blood pressure could be advantageous. Even mortality, at least from diabetes-related causes can be effected by antihypertensive treatment. With more advanced renal disease, normalization of blood pressure is increasingly difficult, especially systolic blood pressure, and therefore it is recommendable to screen patients much earlier on with focus on blood pressure recordings and measurements of albuminuria, including microalbuminuria, and to treat early.