Inhibition of endotoxin-induced uveitis and potentiation of local TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 mRNA expression by interleukin-13.Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40(10):2275-82IO
To investigate the effect of systemic injections of interleukin (IL)-13 on the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in the rat.
EIU was induced in Lewis rats by a single footpad injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 350 microg/kg) from Salmonella typhimurium. Rats were treated with a subcutaneous injection in the back of recombinant human IL-13 (50 microg/kg in 0.2 ml of saline) performed 30 minutes before LPS injection and 6 and 10 hours afterward. At 23 hours after LPS injection, EIU was evaluated by slit-lamp examination and by counts of inflammatory cells on cryostat sections after specific immunostaining. The expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-II in ocular tissues was determined by dual immunofluorescent staining and the release of nitrite in aqueous humor by Griess reaction. Cytokine gene expression in the iris/ciliary body, choroid, and retina was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
At 24 hours after LPS injection, significant clinical inhibition of ocular inflammation and fibrin deposition in the eye was observed in IL-13-treated rats. Quantitative analysis of ocular tissues revealed a significant decrease of OX42+ cells (microglia, activated macrophages, dendritic cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and ED-1+ cells (monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells). No effect on ED2+ cells (resident tissue macrophages) was found. Treatment with IL-13 decreased nitrite levels in aqueous humor and enhanced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 mRNA in ocular tissues.
Interleukin-13 treatment inhibits LPS-induced ocular inflammation with inhibition of nitrite release and increased TNF and IL-6 production in the eye. These results confirm the role of the NO pathway in the pathogenesis of EIU and suggest the involvement of TNF and IL-6 in the downregulation of ocular inflammation.