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Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists.

Abstract

Results associating diet with chronic disease in a cohort of 34192 California Seventh-day Adventists are summarized. Most Seventh-day Adventists do not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol, and there is a wide range of dietary exposures within the population. About 50% of those studied ate meat products <1 time/wk or not at all, and vegetarians consumed more tomatoes, legumes, nuts, and fruit, but less coffee, doughnuts, and eggs than did nonvegetarians. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between beef consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men [relative risk (RR) = 2.31 for subjects who ate beef > or =3 times/wk compared with vegetarians], significant protective associations between nut consumption and fatal and nonfatal IHD in both sexes (RR approximately 0.5 for subjects who ate nuts > or =5 times/wk compared with those who ate nuts <1 time/wk), and reduced risk of IHD in subjects preferring whole-grain to white bread. The lifetime risk of IHD was reduced by approximately 31% in those who consumed nuts frequently and by 37% in male vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Cancers of the colon and prostate were significantly more likely in nonvegetarians (RR of 1.88 and 1.54, respectively), and frequent beef consumers also had higher risk of bladder cancer. Intake of legumes was negatively associated with risk of colon cancer in nonvegetarians and risk of pancreatic cancer. Higher consumption of all fruit or dried fruit was associated with lower risks of lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. Cross-sectional data suggest vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists have lower risks of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and arthritis than nonvegetarians. Thus, among Seventh-day Adventists, vegetarians are healthier than nonvegetarians but this cannot be ascribed only to the absence of meat.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Center for Health Research and the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA. gfraser@sph.llu.edu

    Source

    The American journal of clinical nutrition 70:3 Suppl 1999 09 pg 532S-538S

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Animals
    California
    Cattle
    Christianity
    Chronic Disease
    Diet Surveys
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Epidemiologic Methods
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Mortality
    Multivariate Analysis
    Myocardial Ischemia
    Neoplasms
    Risk

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10479227

    Citation

    Fraser, G E.. "Associations Between Diet and Cancer, Ischemic Heart Disease, and All-cause Mortality in non-Hispanic White California Seventh-day Adventists." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 70, no. 3 Suppl, 1999, 532S-538S.
    Fraser GE. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
    Fraser, G. E. (1999). Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(3 Suppl), 532S-538S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/70.3.532s.
    Fraser GE. Associations Between Diet and Cancer, Ischemic Heart Disease, and All-cause Mortality in non-Hispanic White California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3 Suppl):532S-538S. PubMed PMID: 10479227.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. A1 - Fraser,G E, PY - 1999/9/9/pubmed PY - 1999/9/9/medline PY - 1999/9/9/entrez SP - 532S EP - 538S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 70 IS - 3 Suppl N2 - Results associating diet with chronic disease in a cohort of 34192 California Seventh-day Adventists are summarized. Most Seventh-day Adventists do not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol, and there is a wide range of dietary exposures within the population. About 50% of those studied ate meat products <1 time/wk or not at all, and vegetarians consumed more tomatoes, legumes, nuts, and fruit, but less coffee, doughnuts, and eggs than did nonvegetarians. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between beef consumption and fatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men [relative risk (RR) = 2.31 for subjects who ate beef > or =3 times/wk compared with vegetarians], significant protective associations between nut consumption and fatal and nonfatal IHD in both sexes (RR approximately 0.5 for subjects who ate nuts > or =5 times/wk compared with those who ate nuts <1 time/wk), and reduced risk of IHD in subjects preferring whole-grain to white bread. The lifetime risk of IHD was reduced by approximately 31% in those who consumed nuts frequently and by 37% in male vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians. Cancers of the colon and prostate were significantly more likely in nonvegetarians (RR of 1.88 and 1.54, respectively), and frequent beef consumers also had higher risk of bladder cancer. Intake of legumes was negatively associated with risk of colon cancer in nonvegetarians and risk of pancreatic cancer. Higher consumption of all fruit or dried fruit was associated with lower risks of lung, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. Cross-sectional data suggest vegetarian Seventh-day Adventists have lower risks of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and arthritis than nonvegetarians. Thus, among Seventh-day Adventists, vegetarians are healthier than nonvegetarians but this cannot be ascribed only to the absence of meat. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10479227/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/70.3.532s DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -