Distinct patterns of viral antigen expression in Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus coinfected body-cavity-based lymphoma cell lines: potential switches in latent gene expression due to coinfection.Virology 1999; 262(1):18-30V
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also referred to as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), are human gammaherpesviruses associated with numerous lymphomas and proliferative diseases in humans. We were interested in the protein expression patterns of specific latent and lytic proteins from the EBV genome in two body-cavity-based lymphoma cell lines, BC-1 and BC-2, which are coinfected with EBV and KSHV. BC-1 and BC-2 were analyzed using specific antibodies to latent proteins known to be essential for EBV immortalization of human primary B-lymphocytes in vitro and lytic antigens important for EBV replication and production of viral progeny. The coinfected cell lines are compared with two singly infected KSHV cell lines to determine whether antibodies against EBV-specific proteins cross-reacted against KSHV antigens. All the KSHV-infected cell lines express the KSHV-specific latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) with a specific pattern in the nucleus. This staining was distinct from that seen for EBNA1 in the EBV coinfected lines BC-1 and BC-2 staining the nucleus as a diffused pattern throughout the nucleus with denser staining in some regions. The coinfected cell lines all express EBNA1 and LMP1 at lower levels compared with singly infected EBV lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). However, the essential latent antigens EBNA2, EBNA3A, and EBNA3C are not expressed in BC-1 and BC-2. This indicates potential regulation of EBV latent gene expression by KSHV-encoded viral or KSHV-induced cellular gene products. Additionally, lytic gene expression analysis demonstrated that BZLF1 and BMRF1 are expressed along with other early antigens (EA-D). A specific protein is detected in a singly infected KSHV cell line with cross-reactivity to antibodies that detected the EA-D complex. Moreover, in all the cell lines infected with EBV, KSHV, or EBV and KSHV, human serum with antibodies against KSHV antigens recognizes specific viral antigens approximately 110 and 41-42 kDa, suggesting that human antibodies against KSHV-specific antigens can cross-react with similar EBV antigens. Therefore these data suggest that the EBV pattern of gene expression in the coinfected cell lines is a type II pattern of latency also seen in other human tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. This distinct pattern of latent and lytic gene expression in these cell lines may provide clues as to the selection for coinfection in these body cavity based lymphomas in immunocompromised hosts.