Pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome: results from the CESDI/SUDI case control study. CESDI SUDI Research Team.Arch Dis Child. 1999 Aug; 81(2):112-6.AD
To investigate the relation between pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).
Three year population based, case control study with parental interviews for each death and four age matched controls.
Five regions in England (population > 17 million).
325 infants who had died from SIDS and 1300 control infants.
Significantly fewer SIDS infants (40%) than controls (51%) used a pacifier for the last/reference sleep (univariate odds ratio (OR), 0.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.46 to 0.83) and the difference increased when controlled for other factors (multivariate OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0. 22 to 0.77). However, the proportion of infants who had ever used a pacifier for day (66% SIDS v 66% controls) or night sleeps (61% SIDS v 61% controls) was identical. The association of a risk for SIDS infants who routinely used a pacifier but did not do so for the last sleep became non-significant when controlled for socioeconomic status (bivariate OR, 1.39 (0.93 to 2.07)).
Further epidemiological evidence and physiological studies are needed before pacifier use can be recommended as a measure to reduce the risk of SIDS.