Compliance and tolerability of mefloquine and chloroquine plus proguanil for long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis in groups at particular risk (the military).Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Jan-Feb; 93(1):73-7.TR
An historical prospective study was performed on 5120 Italian soldiers deployed in Somalia and Mozambique in 1992-94, to determine compliance and tolerability of long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine plus proguanil (C + P) and with mefloquine. Compliance with C + P among 3734 soldiers on duty in Somalia for 3.8 +/- 1.8 months and with mefloquine among 1386 soldiers on duty in Mozambique for 3.4 +/- 1.5 months was 90.3% and 95.7%, respectively (P < 0.01). Chemoprophylaxis curtailment rate due to side-effects was 1.5% among C + P users and 0.9% among mefloquine users (P = NS). Compliance with chemoprophylaxis and medication curtailment rate due to side-effects did not change significantly for either C + P or mefloquine, even after 3 months of continuous prophylaxis. Chemoprophylaxis curtailment rate was significantly lower in subjects aged < or = 25 years than in older subjects (1.3% vs. 2.5% for C + P [P < 0.05] and 0.4% vs. 3.3% for mefloquine [P < 0.01]). These results further support the evidence that both C + P and mefloquine regimens may be safely used in long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis. Moreover, weekly mefloquine seems easier to perform than C + P and not to increase prophylaxis discontinuation due to side-effects. Mefloquine regimen should therefore be considered the elective chemoprophylaxis for groups at particular risk of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria and especially for young male subjects.