Clinical behavioral problems in day- and night-wetting children.Pediatr Nephrol. 1999 Oct; 13(8):662-7.PN
In this prospective, clinical study of 167 consecutive wetting children, the associations between specific forms of day and night wetting and clinical behavioral symptoms according to a parental questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), as well as ICD-10 child psychiatric diagnoses are analyzed. For the entire group, the proportion of children with at least one ICD-10 diagnosis was 40.1% and for the CBCL total problems scale 28.2% - three times higher than in the general population. Expansive disorders (21%) were twice as common as emotional disorders (12%). A significantly higher (P<0. 05) proportion of day-wetting children had at least one diagnosis (52.6%) and emotional disorders (19.5%) compared with nocturnal enuretics (33.6% and 8.2%, respectively). Secondary nocturnal enuretics had significantly higher CBCL total problem scores (39.3% vs. 20.0%, P<0.05) as well as psychiatric ICD-10 diagnoses (75% vs. 19.5%, P<0.001) than primary enuretics. Children with primary monosymptomatic enuresis had the lowest rate of CBCL total behavioral symptoms (14.5%) and diagnoses (10%). Of the day-wetting children, those with voiding postponement had more expansive disorders (39.3% vs. 13.6%, P<0.05) and externalizing symptoms (37% vs. 19.%, NS) than those with urge incontinence. In summary, a third of wetting children showed clinically relevant behavioral problems with specific psychiatric comorbidity for the subtypes. A more-detailed differentiation into syndromes rather than into day/night and primary/secondary forms is needed.