Antiherpetic activity and mode of action of natural carrageenans of diverse structural types.Antiviral Res. 1999 Sep; 43(2):93-102.AR
The lambda-carrageenan 1T1, the kappa/iota-carrageenan 1C1 and the mu/nu-type 1C3, isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii, proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. The antiviral IC50 values determined by virus yield inhibition assay in different cell lines ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 microg/ml, and no cytotoxic effects, measured by trypan blue exclusion on stationary or proliferating cells, tetrazolium salt method or cell protein synthesis, were observed. Time of addition and attachment studies suggested that the main target for antiviral action of the three carrageenans was virus adsorption, whereas no effect on virus internalization, or early or late protein synthesis was detected. However, the lambda-carrageenan 1T1 was still significantly inhibitory when added any time after adsorption. The pretreatment of virions with the carrageenans showed that 1C1 and 1C3 lacked direct inactivating effect at concentrations near the antiviral IC50 but 1T1 exerted virucidal action. The cyclization of 1T1 to afford the derivative 1T1T1 maintained the antiviral activity but eliminated the virucidal properties. Thus, the structure of 1T1 seems to be responsible for its differential behavior from 1C1 and 1C3, probably allowing a more stable binding to HSV, leading to virion inactivation. In contrast, 1C1 and 1C3 fail to bind with high affinity to virus alone, but are able to interfere with the interaction between HSV particles and the cell.