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Depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and functional impairment in a rural elderly population in India: a Hindi version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS-H).
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14(10):807-20IJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure depressive symptomatology in a largely illiterate elderly population in India, using a new Hindi version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-H), and to examine its distribution and associations with age, gender, literacy, cognitive impairment and functional impairment.

DESIGN

A Hindi version of the Geriatric Depression Scale was developed and administered to participants along with measures of demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional ability.

SETTING

The rural community of Ballabgarh in northern India.

PARTICIPANTS

A community sample of 1554 mostly illiterate Hindi-speaking residents of Ballabgarh aged 55+.

MEASURES

The Hindi version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-H); the Hindi Mental State Exam (HMSE); the Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI); age, gender and literacy.

RESULTS

The GDS-H had high internal consistency and a factor structure comparable to the original English language version. The overall distribution of scores was higher than reported from other populations. Greater numbers of depressive symptoms, as measured by higher scores on the GDS-H, were associated with older age and illiteracy. Among the illiterate, there was no gender difference while among the literate, higher GDS-H scores were found among women. Cognitive impairment and functional disability were independently associated with higher scores on the GDS-H after adjustment for age, gender and literacy.

CONCLUSION

A reliable and valid Hindi version of the GDS has been developed. Depressive symptoms as measured by the GDS-H were prominent in this elderly illiterate northern Indian population and strongly associated with both cognitive and functional impairment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Pittsburgh, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10521880

Citation

Ganguli, M, et al. "Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive Impairment and Functional Impairment in a Rural Elderly Population in India: a Hindi Version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-H)." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 10, 1999, pp. 807-20.
Ganguli M, Dube S, Johnston JM, et al. Depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and functional impairment in a rural elderly population in India: a Hindi version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS-H). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999;14(10):807-20.
Ganguli, M., Dube, S., Johnston, J. M., Pandav, R., Chandra, V., & Dodge, H. H. (1999). Depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and functional impairment in a rural elderly population in India: a Hindi version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS-H). International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(10), pp. 807-20.
Ganguli M, et al. Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive Impairment and Functional Impairment in a Rural Elderly Population in India: a Hindi Version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-H). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1999;14(10):807-20. PubMed PMID: 10521880.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Depressive symptoms, cognitive impairment and functional impairment in a rural elderly population in India: a Hindi version of the geriatric depression scale (GDS-H). AU - Ganguli,M, AU - Dube,S, AU - Johnston,J M, AU - Pandav,R, AU - Chandra,V, AU - Dodge,H H, PY - 1999/10/16/pubmed PY - 1999/10/16/medline PY - 1999/10/16/entrez SP - 807 EP - 20 JF - International journal of geriatric psychiatry JO - Int J Geriatr Psychiatry VL - 14 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To measure depressive symptomatology in a largely illiterate elderly population in India, using a new Hindi version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-H), and to examine its distribution and associations with age, gender, literacy, cognitive impairment and functional impairment. DESIGN: A Hindi version of the Geriatric Depression Scale was developed and administered to participants along with measures of demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional ability. SETTING: The rural community of Ballabgarh in northern India. PARTICIPANTS: A community sample of 1554 mostly illiterate Hindi-speaking residents of Ballabgarh aged 55+. MEASURES: The Hindi version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-H); the Hindi Mental State Exam (HMSE); the Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI); age, gender and literacy. RESULTS: The GDS-H had high internal consistency and a factor structure comparable to the original English language version. The overall distribution of scores was higher than reported from other populations. Greater numbers of depressive symptoms, as measured by higher scores on the GDS-H, were associated with older age and illiteracy. Among the illiterate, there was no gender difference while among the literate, higher GDS-H scores were found among women. Cognitive impairment and functional disability were independently associated with higher scores on the GDS-H after adjustment for age, gender and literacy. CONCLUSION: A reliable and valid Hindi version of the GDS has been developed. Depressive symptoms as measured by the GDS-H were prominent in this elderly illiterate northern Indian population and strongly associated with both cognitive and functional impairment. SN - 0885-6230 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10521880/Depressive_symptoms_cognitive_impairment_and_functional_impairment_in_a_rural_elderly_population_in_India:_a_Hindi_version_of_the_geriatric_depression_scale__GDS_H__ L2 - http://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/2199 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -