Manganese and iron porphyrins catalyze peroxynitrite decomposition and simultaneously increase nitration and oxidant yield: implications for their use as peroxynitrite scavengers in vivo.Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Nov 01; 371(1):41-52.AB
Twelve substituted metalloporphyrins (MPs), some of which have been previously characterized with respect to superoxide dismutase and peroxynitrite decomposing activities, were evaluated for their ability to scavenge peroxynitrite in vitro at 37 degrees C. Because the overall effectiveness of MPs as catalytic peroxynitrite scavengers is a function of (1) how fast they react with peroxynitrite, (2) how fast they cycle back to the starting compound, and (3) how well they contain or quench the reactive intermediates generated, all of these properties were evaluated and compared directly under the same conditions. Of the various MPs tested, only the iron and manganese porphyrins showed significant reactivity with peroxynitrite. The Mn(IV) intermediates resulting from oxidation by peroxynitrite were relatively stable and rereduction to the Mn(III) forms was rate-limiting to catalytic decomposition of peroxynitrite. However, in the presence of oxidizeable substrates like phenolics, rereduction of Mn(IV) forms occurred very rapidly and both the Mn- and Fe-porphyrins catalyzed nitration and oxidation by peroxynitrite. Mn- and Fe-porphyrins enhanced the yield of nitrated phenolics by peroxynitrite as much as 5-fold at pH 7.4 and up to 12-fold at pH 9. 1, while total oxidative yield was more than doubled. Nitration enhancement by MPs was effectively inhibited by ascorbate, glutathione, or serum, although much higher concentrations of ascorbate were required to inhibit nitration catalyzed by either Mn or Fe tetramethylpyridyl porphyrin. Catalysis of peroxynitrite nitration by MPs appears to proceed via a radical-mediated reaction mechanism whereby the phenolic substrate rapidly reduces Mn(IV) = O or Fe[IV] = O to the +3 state to yield phenoxyl radical which then combines with the other primary product, nitrogen dioxide. Based on the rate constants and the proposed reaction mechanism, it is reasonable to suggest that Mn and Fe porphyrins could detoxify peroxynitrite in vivo by efficiently trapping the relatively unreactive peroxynitrite anion and, in effect, channeling it into a single reaction pathway which could then be more effectively scavenged by cellular reductants like ascorbate.