Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Arch Intern Med 1999; 159(18):2151-9AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Experimental studies in animals and cross-sectional studies in humans have suggested that low serum magnesium levels might lead to type 2 diabetes; however, this association has not been examined prospectively.

METHODS

We assessed the risk for type 2 diabetes associated with low serum magnesium level and low dietary magnesium intake in a cohort of nondiabetic middle-aged adults (N = 12,128) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study during 6 years of follow-up. Fasting serum magnesium level, categorized into 6 levels, and dietary magnesium intake, categorized into quartiles, were measured at the baseline examination. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by self-report of physician diagnosis, use of diabetic medication, fasting glucose level of at least 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or nonfasting glucose level of at least 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).

RESULTS

Among white participants, a graded inverse relationship between serum magnesium levels and incident type 2 diabetes was observed. From the highest to the lowest serum magnesium levels, there was an approximate 2-fold increase in incidence rate (11.1, 12.2, 13.6, 12.8, 15.8, and 22.8 per 1000 person-years; P = .001). This graded association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for potential confounders, including diuretic use. Compared with individuals with serum magnesium levels of 0.95 mmol/L (1.90 mEq/L) or greater, the adjusted relative odds of incident type 2 diabetes rose progressively across the following lower magnesium categories: 1.13 (95% CI, 0.79-1.61), 1.20 (95% CI, 0.86-1.68), 1.11 (95% CI, 0.80-1.56), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.86-1.78), and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.18-2.61) (for trend, P = .01). In contrast, little or no association was observed in black participants. No association was detected between dietary magnesium intake and the risk for incident type 2 diabetes in black or white participants.

CONCLUSIONS

Among white participants, low serum magnesium level is a strong, independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes. That low dietary magnesium intake does not confer risk for type 2 diabetes implies that compartmentalization and renal handling of magnesium may be important in the relationship between low serum magnesium levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10527292

Citation

Kao, W H., et al. "Serum and Dietary Magnesium and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 18, 1999, pp. 2151-9.
Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, et al. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(18):2151-9.
Kao, W. H., Folsom, A. R., Nieto, F. J., Mo, J. P., Watson, R. L., & Brancati, F. L. (1999). Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(18), pp. 2151-9.
Kao WH, et al. Serum and Dietary Magnesium and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Oct 11;159(18):2151-9. PubMed PMID: 10527292.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AU - Kao,W H, AU - Folsom,A R, AU - Nieto,F J, AU - Mo,J P, AU - Watson,R L, AU - Brancati,F L, PY - 1999/10/20/pubmed PY - 1999/10/20/medline PY - 1999/10/20/entrez SP - 2151 EP - 9 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 159 IS - 18 N2 - BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals and cross-sectional studies in humans have suggested that low serum magnesium levels might lead to type 2 diabetes; however, this association has not been examined prospectively. METHODS: We assessed the risk for type 2 diabetes associated with low serum magnesium level and low dietary magnesium intake in a cohort of nondiabetic middle-aged adults (N = 12,128) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study during 6 years of follow-up. Fasting serum magnesium level, categorized into 6 levels, and dietary magnesium intake, categorized into quartiles, were measured at the baseline examination. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by self-report of physician diagnosis, use of diabetic medication, fasting glucose level of at least 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or nonfasting glucose level of at least 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). RESULTS: Among white participants, a graded inverse relationship between serum magnesium levels and incident type 2 diabetes was observed. From the highest to the lowest serum magnesium levels, there was an approximate 2-fold increase in incidence rate (11.1, 12.2, 13.6, 12.8, 15.8, and 22.8 per 1000 person-years; P = .001). This graded association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for potential confounders, including diuretic use. Compared with individuals with serum magnesium levels of 0.95 mmol/L (1.90 mEq/L) or greater, the adjusted relative odds of incident type 2 diabetes rose progressively across the following lower magnesium categories: 1.13 (95% CI, 0.79-1.61), 1.20 (95% CI, 0.86-1.68), 1.11 (95% CI, 0.80-1.56), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.86-1.78), and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.18-2.61) (for trend, P = .01). In contrast, little or no association was observed in black participants. No association was detected between dietary magnesium intake and the risk for incident type 2 diabetes in black or white participants. CONCLUSIONS: Among white participants, low serum magnesium level is a strong, independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes. That low dietary magnesium intake does not confer risk for type 2 diabetes implies that compartmentalization and renal handling of magnesium may be important in the relationship between low serum magnesium levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10527292/Serum_and_dietary_magnesium_and_the_risk_for_type_2_diabetes_mellitus:_the_Atherosclerosis_Risk_in_Communities_Study_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/vol/159/pg/2151 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -