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Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Arch Intern Med 1999; 159(18):2151-9AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Experimental studies in animals and cross-sectional studies in humans have suggested that low serum magnesium levels might lead to type 2 diabetes; however, this association has not been examined prospectively.

METHODS

We assessed the risk for type 2 diabetes associated with low serum magnesium level and low dietary magnesium intake in a cohort of nondiabetic middle-aged adults (N = 12,128) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study during 6 years of follow-up. Fasting serum magnesium level, categorized into 6 levels, and dietary magnesium intake, categorized into quartiles, were measured at the baseline examination. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by self-report of physician diagnosis, use of diabetic medication, fasting glucose level of at least 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or nonfasting glucose level of at least 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).

RESULTS

Among white participants, a graded inverse relationship between serum magnesium levels and incident type 2 diabetes was observed. From the highest to the lowest serum magnesium levels, there was an approximate 2-fold increase in incidence rate (11.1, 12.2, 13.6, 12.8, 15.8, and 22.8 per 1000 person-years; P = .001). This graded association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for potential confounders, including diuretic use. Compared with individuals with serum magnesium levels of 0.95 mmol/L (1.90 mEq/L) or greater, the adjusted relative odds of incident type 2 diabetes rose progressively across the following lower magnesium categories: 1.13 (95% CI, 0.79-1.61), 1.20 (95% CI, 0.86-1.68), 1.11 (95% CI, 0.80-1.56), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.86-1.78), and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.18-2.61) (for trend, P = .01). In contrast, little or no association was observed in black participants. No association was detected between dietary magnesium intake and the risk for incident type 2 diabetes in black or white participants.

CONCLUSIONS

Among white participants, low serum magnesium level is a strong, independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes. That low dietary magnesium intake does not confer risk for type 2 diabetes implies that compartmentalization and renal handling of magnesium may be important in the relationship between low serum magnesium levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10527292

Citation

Kao, W H., et al. "Serum and Dietary Magnesium and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 18, 1999, pp. 2151-9.
Kao WH, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, et al. Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(18):2151-9.
Kao, W. H., Folsom, A. R., Nieto, F. J., Mo, J. P., Watson, R. L., & Brancati, F. L. (1999). Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159(18), pp. 2151-9.
Kao WH, et al. Serum and Dietary Magnesium and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Oct 11;159(18):2151-9. PubMed PMID: 10527292.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AU - Kao,W H, AU - Folsom,A R, AU - Nieto,F J, AU - Mo,J P, AU - Watson,R L, AU - Brancati,F L, PY - 1999/10/20/pubmed PY - 1999/10/20/medline PY - 1999/10/20/entrez SP - 2151 EP - 9 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 159 IS - 18 N2 - BACKGROUND: Experimental studies in animals and cross-sectional studies in humans have suggested that low serum magnesium levels might lead to type 2 diabetes; however, this association has not been examined prospectively. METHODS: We assessed the risk for type 2 diabetes associated with low serum magnesium level and low dietary magnesium intake in a cohort of nondiabetic middle-aged adults (N = 12,128) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study during 6 years of follow-up. Fasting serum magnesium level, categorized into 6 levels, and dietary magnesium intake, categorized into quartiles, were measured at the baseline examination. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined by self-report of physician diagnosis, use of diabetic medication, fasting glucose level of at least 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL), or nonfasting glucose level of at least 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). RESULTS: Among white participants, a graded inverse relationship between serum magnesium levels and incident type 2 diabetes was observed. From the highest to the lowest serum magnesium levels, there was an approximate 2-fold increase in incidence rate (11.1, 12.2, 13.6, 12.8, 15.8, and 22.8 per 1000 person-years; P = .001). This graded association remained significant after simultaneous adjustment for potential confounders, including diuretic use. Compared with individuals with serum magnesium levels of 0.95 mmol/L (1.90 mEq/L) or greater, the adjusted relative odds of incident type 2 diabetes rose progressively across the following lower magnesium categories: 1.13 (95% CI, 0.79-1.61), 1.20 (95% CI, 0.86-1.68), 1.11 (95% CI, 0.80-1.56), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.86-1.78), and 1.76 (95% CI, 1.18-2.61) (for trend, P = .01). In contrast, little or no association was observed in black participants. No association was detected between dietary magnesium intake and the risk for incident type 2 diabetes in black or white participants. CONCLUSIONS: Among white participants, low serum magnesium level is a strong, independent predictor of incident type 2 diabetes. That low dietary magnesium intake does not confer risk for type 2 diabetes implies that compartmentalization and renal handling of magnesium may be important in the relationship between low serum magnesium levels and the risk for type 2 diabetes. SN - 0003-9926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10527292/Serum_and_dietary_magnesium_and_the_risk_for_type_2_diabetes_mellitus:_the_Atherosclerosis_Risk_in_Communities_Study_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/vol/159/pg/2151 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -