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Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999; 78(9):749-57AO

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Iron supplementation in pregnancy is a controversial issue. The aim of this review was to summarize the results of relevant papers on this subject.

METHODS

Placebo-controlled studies on iron treatment in pregnancy were identified from the Cochrane database.

RESULTS

Among fertile women, 20% have iron reserves of >500 mg, which is the required minimum during pregnancy; 40% have iron stores of 100-500 mg, and 40% have virtually no iron stores. The demand for absorbed iron increases from 0.8 mg/day in early pregnancy to 7.5 mg/day in late pregnancy. Dietary iron intake in fertile women is median 9 mg/day, i.e. the majority of women have an intake below the estimated allowance of 12 18 mg/day. Iron absorption increases in pregnancy, but not enough to prevent iron deficiency anemia in 20%, of women not taking supplementary iron. Iron-treated pregnant women have greater iron reserves, higher hemoglobin levels, and a lower prevalence of iron deficiency anemia than placebo-treated women both in pregnancy as well as postpartum. Furthermore, children born to iron-treated mothers have higher serum ferritin levels than those born to placebo-treated mothers. An iron supplement of 65 mg/day from 20 weeks of gestation is adequate to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

CONCLUSIONS

In order to avoid iron deficiency in pregnancy, prophylactic iron supplement should be considered. Iron supplements may be administered on a general or selective basis. The selective approach implies screening with serum ferritin in early pregnancy, in order to identify women who can manage without prophylactic iron.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Naestved Hospital, Denmark.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10535335

Citation

Milman, N, et al. "Iron Status and Iron Balance During Pregnancy. a Critical Reappraisal of Iron Supplementation." Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, vol. 78, no. 9, 1999, pp. 749-57.
Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg KE, et al. Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78(9):749-57.
Milman, N., Bergholt, T., Byg, K. E., Eriksen, L., & Graudal, N. (1999). Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 78(9), pp. 749-57.
Milman N, et al. Iron Status and Iron Balance During Pregnancy. a Critical Reappraisal of Iron Supplementation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1999;78(9):749-57. PubMed PMID: 10535335.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. AU - Milman,N, AU - Bergholt,T, AU - Byg,K E, AU - Eriksen,L, AU - Graudal,N, PY - 1999/10/27/pubmed PY - 1999/10/27/medline PY - 1999/10/27/entrez SP - 749 EP - 57 JF - Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica JO - Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand VL - 78 IS - 9 N2 - BACKGROUND: Iron supplementation in pregnancy is a controversial issue. The aim of this review was to summarize the results of relevant papers on this subject. METHODS: Placebo-controlled studies on iron treatment in pregnancy were identified from the Cochrane database. RESULTS: Among fertile women, 20% have iron reserves of >500 mg, which is the required minimum during pregnancy; 40% have iron stores of 100-500 mg, and 40% have virtually no iron stores. The demand for absorbed iron increases from 0.8 mg/day in early pregnancy to 7.5 mg/day in late pregnancy. Dietary iron intake in fertile women is median 9 mg/day, i.e. the majority of women have an intake below the estimated allowance of 12 18 mg/day. Iron absorption increases in pregnancy, but not enough to prevent iron deficiency anemia in 20%, of women not taking supplementary iron. Iron-treated pregnant women have greater iron reserves, higher hemoglobin levels, and a lower prevalence of iron deficiency anemia than placebo-treated women both in pregnancy as well as postpartum. Furthermore, children born to iron-treated mothers have higher serum ferritin levels than those born to placebo-treated mothers. An iron supplement of 65 mg/day from 20 weeks of gestation is adequate to prevent iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS: In order to avoid iron deficiency in pregnancy, prophylactic iron supplement should be considered. Iron supplements may be administered on a general or selective basis. The selective approach implies screening with serum ferritin in early pregnancy, in order to identify women who can manage without prophylactic iron. SN - 0001-6349 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10535335/Iron_status_and_iron_balance_during_pregnancy__A_critical_reappraisal_of_iron_supplementation_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0001-6349&date=1999&volume=78&issue=9&spage=749 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -