Clinical findings, treatment, and outcome of dogs with status epilepticus or cluster seizures: 156 cases (1990-1995).J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999 Nov 15; 215(10):1463-8.JA
To report clinical findings, treatments, and outcomes of dogs admitted to the hospital for status epilepticus or cluster seizures and evaluate factors associated with outcome.
156 dogs admitted for status epilepticus or cluster seizures.
Medical records were reviewed for seizure and medication history, diagnostic test results, types of treatment, hospitalization costs, and outcome of hospital visits.
Dogs were admitted for seizures on 194 occasions. Of 194 admissions, 128 (66%), 2 (1%), 32 (16.5%), 2 (1%), and 30 (15.5%) were of dogs with a history of clusters of generalized seizures, clusters of partial complex seizures, convulsive status epilepticus, partial status epilepticus, and > 1 type of seizure, respectively. Underlying causes of seizures were primary epilepsy (26.8%; 52/194), secondary epilepsy (35.1%; 68), reactive epileptic seizures (6.7%; 13), primary or secondary epilepsy with low serum antiepileptic drug concentrations (5.7%; 11), and undetermined (25.8%; 50). One hundred and eighty-six hospital visits resulted in admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Treatments with continuous i.v. infusions of diazepam or phenobarbital were initiated during 66.8% (124/186) and 18.7% (35) of ICU hospital stays for 22.3 +/- 16.1 hours (mean +/- SD) and 21.9 +/- 15.4 hours, respectively. Of 194 admissions, 74.7% (145) resulted in discharge from the hospital, 2.1% (4) in death, and 23.2% (45) in euthanasia. A poor outcome (death or euthanasia) was significantly associated with granulomatous meningoencephalitis, loss of seizure control after 6 hours of hospitalization, and the development of partial status epilepticus.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Granulomatous meningoencephalitis, loss of seizure control after 6 hours of hospitalization, or the development of partial status epilepticus may indicate a poor prognosis for dogs with seizures.