Hematospermia: an investigation of the bleeding site and underlying lesions.Int J Urol. 1999 Nov; 6(11):539-47; discussion 548.IJ
The site of hemorrhage and causative lesions in patients with hematospermia were evaluated using the puncture technique for seminal vesicles and/or müllerian duct cysts under ultrasound guidance.
Twenty-one patients aged 26-75 years (mean, 49.8 years) underwent transperineal needle aspiration of the seminal vesicles and/or müllerian duct cysts guided by transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS).
Dark reddish seminal vesicle fluid was aspirated and the site of bleeding was considered to be the seminal vesicles in 11 patients (52%) (group A). In group A, abnormalities of the seminal vesicles were noted in nine patients (82%). These consisted of dilated seminal vesicles in seven (bilateral in four, unilateral in three), a seminal vesicle cyst in one and seminal vesicle amyloidosis in one. A müllerian duct cyst was confirmed to be the bleeding site in two patients (10%; group B). The bleeding site was estimated to be organs rather than the seminal vesicles in four patients (group C), in all of whom ectopic prostatic tissue was observed in the prostatic urethra. In groups B and C, seminal vesicle abnormalities were not detected by TRUS. In the remaining four patients (group D), failure to aspirate seminal vesicle fluid means that it is unclear whether hemorrhage was from the seminal vesicle or from another source. In group D, ectopic prostatic tissue was demonstrated in the prostatic urethra of three patients and unilateral seminal vesicle dilation was detected by TRUS in one patient.
Puncture of the seminal vesicles and/or mullerian duct cysts under ultrasonic guidance as well as cystourethroscopy is a useful and minimally invasive examination for determination of the bleeding site responsible for hematospermia.