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Race, socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence.

Abstract

Asthma prevalence in the United States has been reported to be higher in minority groups such as Blacks and Hispanics. Because a disproportionate number of individuals from such minority groups are of low socioeconomic status (SES), it is unclear how much of the racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence is related to low SES. We investigated the effect of SES on the relationship between race/ethnicity and asthma prevalence in a cohort of families with a history of asthma or allergies from the Boston, Massachusetts area. From 499 families, a cohort of 998 parents and 307 children was identified. We used total yearly family income (<$50,000 vs. > or = $50, 000), highest level of education (< or = high school vs. > or = college), and residence in high-poverty areas vs. low-poverty areas as measures of SES. Yearly family income <$50,000, < or = high school education, and residence in high poverty areas were all associated with increased risks for asthma in both cohorts. In the parental cohort, Blacks and Hispanics (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5, 2.8; and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2, respectively) were at greater risk for asthma than Whites. In the cohort of children, Black and Hispanic children (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.0, 8.0; and OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6, 17.5, respectively) were also at increased risk for asthma. When the three measures of SES were included in the multivariable models, the risks associated with Blacks and Hispanics decreased in both cohorts: OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9, 2.0; and OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0, 2. 6, respectively, for the parents; and OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.2, 3.0; and 2.5, 95% CI = 0.5, 11.7, respectively, for the children. We conclude that a large proportion of the racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence in our study is explained by factors related to income, area of residence, and level of education.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. augusto.litonjua@channing.harvard.edu

    , ,

    Source

    Pediatric pulmonology 28:6 1999 Dec pg 394-401

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    African Americans
    African Continental Ancestry Group
    Age Distribution
    Asian Americans
    Asian Continental Ancestry Group
    Asthma
    Boston
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Cohort Studies
    Confidence Intervals
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Health Surveys
    Hispanic Americans
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Prevalence
    Residence Characteristics
    Risk Factors
    Sex Distribution
    Socioeconomic Factors
    Urban Population

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10587412

    Citation

    Litonjua, A A., et al. "Race, Socioeconomic Factors, and Area of Residence Are Associated With Asthma Prevalence." Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 28, no. 6, 1999, pp. 394-401.
    Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Weiss ST, et al. Race, socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1999;28(6):394-401.
    Litonjua, A. A., Carey, V. J., Weiss, S. T., & Gold, D. R. (1999). Race, socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence. Pediatric Pulmonology, 28(6), pp. 394-401.
    Litonjua AA, et al. Race, Socioeconomic Factors, and Area of Residence Are Associated With Asthma Prevalence. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1999;28(6):394-401. PubMed PMID: 10587412.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Race, socioeconomic factors, and area of residence are associated with asthma prevalence. AU - Litonjua,A A, AU - Carey,V J, AU - Weiss,S T, AU - Gold,D R, PY - 1999/12/10/pubmed PY - 1999/12/10/medline PY - 1999/12/10/entrez SP - 394 EP - 401 JF - Pediatric pulmonology JO - Pediatr. Pulmonol. VL - 28 IS - 6 N2 - Asthma prevalence in the United States has been reported to be higher in minority groups such as Blacks and Hispanics. Because a disproportionate number of individuals from such minority groups are of low socioeconomic status (SES), it is unclear how much of the racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence is related to low SES. We investigated the effect of SES on the relationship between race/ethnicity and asthma prevalence in a cohort of families with a history of asthma or allergies from the Boston, Massachusetts area. From 499 families, a cohort of 998 parents and 307 children was identified. We used total yearly family income (<$50,000 vs. > or = $50, 000), highest level of education (< or = high school vs. > or = college), and residence in high-poverty areas vs. low-poverty areas as measures of SES. Yearly family income <$50,000, < or = high school education, and residence in high poverty areas were all associated with increased risks for asthma in both cohorts. In the parental cohort, Blacks and Hispanics (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.5, 2.8; and OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5, 3.2, respectively) were at greater risk for asthma than Whites. In the cohort of children, Black and Hispanic children (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.0, 8.0; and OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.6, 17.5, respectively) were also at increased risk for asthma. When the three measures of SES were included in the multivariable models, the risks associated with Blacks and Hispanics decreased in both cohorts: OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9, 2.0; and OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.0, 2. 6, respectively, for the parents; and OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.2, 3.0; and 2.5, 95% CI = 0.5, 11.7, respectively, for the children. We conclude that a large proportion of the racial/ethnic differences in asthma prevalence in our study is explained by factors related to income, area of residence, and level of education. SN - 8755-6863 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10587412/Race_socioeconomic_factors_and_area_of_residence_are_associated_with_asthma_prevalence_ L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&amp;sid=nlm:pubmed&amp;issn=8755-6863&amp;date=1999&amp;volume=28&amp;issue=6&amp;spage=394 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -