Effect of supplementation with dietary seal oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic variables in healthy male subjects.Thromb Res. 1999 Nov 01; 96(3):239-50.TR
The average daily consumption of seal oil by the Inuit people is approximately 8-9 g, yet there is very little information on the effect of seal oil consumption on cardiovascular disease risk factors. In this study, 19 healthy, normocholesterolemic subjects consumed 20 g of encapsulated seal oil containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3) or 20 g of vegetable oil (control) per day for 42 days. Levels of selected cardiovascular and thrombotic risk factors as well as fatty acid profiles of serum phospholipid and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) were determined. EPA levels in serum phospholipid and NEFA increased by 4.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively, in the seal oil supplemented group. DHA levels rose 1.5- and 2.1-fold, respectively, and DPA levels rose 0.5- and 0.7-fold, respectively. Arachidonic acid (AA) levels dropped by 26% in both serum phospholipid and serum NEFA. There was a significant decrease in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid from 7.2 to 2.1 and a significant increase in the ratio of EPA/AA in NEFA. Ingestion of seal oil raised the coagulant inhibitor, protein C, values by 7% and decreased plasma fibrinogen by 18%. No alterations in other hemostatic variables, including plasma activity of Factors VII, VIII, IX, and X and antithrombin, or in the concentrations of von Willebrand Factor, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, Apo A-1, or lipoprotein(a) were observed in either group. Other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hematocrit, white blood cell count, plasma viscosity, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, and platelet aggregation after stimulation with ADP or collagen did not change. Our results indicate that seal oil supplementation in healthy, normocholesterolemic subjects decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio and increased EPA, DHA, and DPA and the ratio of EPA/AA and DHA/AA in the serum phospholipid and NEFA, while exhibiting a modest beneficial effect on fibrinogen and protein C levels.