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The effects of anorexia nervosa on bone metabolism in female adolescents.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84(12):4489-96JC

Abstract

Osteopenia is a frequent, often persistent, complication of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescent girls and occurs during a critical time in bone development. Little is known about bone metabolism in this patient population. Therefore, we measured bone density (BMD) and body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, nutritional status, bone turnover, calcium, and hormonal status in 19 adolescent girls with AN (mean +/- SEM, 16.0+/-0.4 yr) and 19 bone age-matched controls. The mean duration of AN was 19+/-5 months. Spinal (L1-L4) osteopenia was common in AN. Lumbar anterioposterior BMD was more than 1 SD below the mean in 42% of patients, and lateral spine BMD was more than 1 SD below in 63% of patients compared with controls. Lean body mass significantly predicted lumbar bone mineral content (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) in controls only. In AN, duration of illness was the most significant predictor of spinal BMD (lumbar: r = -0.44; P = 0.06; lateral: r = -0.59; P = 0.008). AN adolescents with mature BA (15 yr and greater) were hypogonadal [estradiol, 16.2+/-1.9 vs. 23.3+/-1.6 pg/mL (P = 0.01); free testosterone, 0.70+/-0.17 vs. 1.36+/-0.14 pg/mL (P = 0.01)] although dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary free cortisol levels did not differ. Leptin levels were reduced in AN (2.9+/-2.1 vs. 16.5+/-1.8 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was reduced in AN to 50% of control levels (219+/-41 vs. 511+/-35 ng/mL; P < 0.0001) and correlated with all measures of nutritional status, particularly leptin (r = 0.80; P < 0.0001). Surrogate markers of bone formation, serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), were significantly (P = 0.02) reduced in AN vs. controls (OC, 39.1+/-6.4 vs. 59.2+/-5.2 ng/mL; BSAP, 27.9+/-4.0 vs. 40.6+/-3.4 U/L). The majority of the variation in bone formation in AN was due to IGF-I levels (OC: r2 = 0.72; P = 0.002; BSAP: r2 = 0.53; P = 0.01) in stepwise regression analyses. Bone resorption was comparable in patients and controls. These data demonstrate that bone formation is reduced and uncoupled to bone resorption in mature adolescents with AN in association with low bone density. Lean body mass was a significant predictor of BMD in controls, but not AN patients. The major correlate of bone formation in AN was the nutritionally dependent bone trophic factor, IGF-I. Reduced IGF-I during the critical period of bone mineral accumulation may be an important factor in the development of osteopenia in adolescents with AN.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10599707

Citation

Soyka, L A., et al. "The Effects of Anorexia Nervosa On Bone Metabolism in Female Adolescents." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 84, no. 12, 1999, pp. 4489-96.
Soyka LA, Grinspoon S, Levitsky LL, et al. The effects of anorexia nervosa on bone metabolism in female adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(12):4489-96.
Soyka, L. A., Grinspoon, S., Levitsky, L. L., Herzog, D. B., & Klibanski, A. (1999). The effects of anorexia nervosa on bone metabolism in female adolescents. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84(12), pp. 4489-96.
Soyka LA, et al. The Effects of Anorexia Nervosa On Bone Metabolism in Female Adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(12):4489-96. PubMed PMID: 10599707.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effects of anorexia nervosa on bone metabolism in female adolescents. AU - Soyka,L A, AU - Grinspoon,S, AU - Levitsky,L L, AU - Herzog,D B, AU - Klibanski,A, PY - 1999/12/22/pubmed PY - 1999/12/22/medline PY - 1999/12/22/entrez SP - 4489 EP - 96 JF - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism JO - J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. VL - 84 IS - 12 N2 - Osteopenia is a frequent, often persistent, complication of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescent girls and occurs during a critical time in bone development. Little is known about bone metabolism in this patient population. Therefore, we measured bone density (BMD) and body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, nutritional status, bone turnover, calcium, and hormonal status in 19 adolescent girls with AN (mean +/- SEM, 16.0+/-0.4 yr) and 19 bone age-matched controls. The mean duration of AN was 19+/-5 months. Spinal (L1-L4) osteopenia was common in AN. Lumbar anterioposterior BMD was more than 1 SD below the mean in 42% of patients, and lateral spine BMD was more than 1 SD below in 63% of patients compared with controls. Lean body mass significantly predicted lumbar bone mineral content (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) in controls only. In AN, duration of illness was the most significant predictor of spinal BMD (lumbar: r = -0.44; P = 0.06; lateral: r = -0.59; P = 0.008). AN adolescents with mature BA (15 yr and greater) were hypogonadal [estradiol, 16.2+/-1.9 vs. 23.3+/-1.6 pg/mL (P = 0.01); free testosterone, 0.70+/-0.17 vs. 1.36+/-0.14 pg/mL (P = 0.01)] although dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary free cortisol levels did not differ. Leptin levels were reduced in AN (2.9+/-2.1 vs. 16.5+/-1.8 ng/mL; P < 0.0001). Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was reduced in AN to 50% of control levels (219+/-41 vs. 511+/-35 ng/mL; P < 0.0001) and correlated with all measures of nutritional status, particularly leptin (r = 0.80; P < 0.0001). Surrogate markers of bone formation, serum osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), were significantly (P = 0.02) reduced in AN vs. controls (OC, 39.1+/-6.4 vs. 59.2+/-5.2 ng/mL; BSAP, 27.9+/-4.0 vs. 40.6+/-3.4 U/L). The majority of the variation in bone formation in AN was due to IGF-I levels (OC: r2 = 0.72; P = 0.002; BSAP: r2 = 0.53; P = 0.01) in stepwise regression analyses. Bone resorption was comparable in patients and controls. These data demonstrate that bone formation is reduced and uncoupled to bone resorption in mature adolescents with AN in association with low bone density. Lean body mass was a significant predictor of BMD in controls, but not AN patients. The major correlate of bone formation in AN was the nutritionally dependent bone trophic factor, IGF-I. Reduced IGF-I during the critical period of bone mineral accumulation may be an important factor in the development of osteopenia in adolescents with AN. SN - 0021-972X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10599707/The_effects_of_anorexia_nervosa_on_bone_metabolism_in_female_adolescents_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jcem.84.12.6207 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -