Kinetics and cellular origin of cytokines in the central nervous system: insight into mechanisms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.J Immunol. 2000 Jan 01; 164(1):419-26.JI
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice is characterized by early (day 12) acute paralysis, followed by a sustained chronic clinical course that gradually stabilizes. Extensive inflammation and demyelination coincide with clinical signs of disease. To identify the mechanisms of these processes, individual proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were studied. Sensitive single-cell assays were utilized to determine the cellular origin and kinetics of cytokine production in the CNS. Immunization with MOG35-55 peptide resulted in priming of both Th1 (lymphotoxin, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) and Th2 (IL-4) cells in the spleen. However, only Th1 cells were apparent in the CNS. CD4 T cells that produced IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha were present in the CNS by day 7 after immunization with MOG35-55, peaked at day 20, and then waned. TNF-alpha was also produced in the CNS by Mac-1+ cells. On days 7 and 10 after immunization, the TNF-alpha-producing Mac1+ cells were predominantly microglia. By day 14, a switch occurred in that the Mac1+ TNF-alpha-producing cells had the phenotype of infiltrating macrophages. RANTES, IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 chemokine mRNA were detected in the CNS by day 8 after immunization. The early presence of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) in the CNS provides a mechanism for the recruitment of macrophages. These data implicate TNF-alpha production by a continuum of T cells, microglia, and macrophages at various times during the course of disease. The importance of Th1 cytokines is highlighted, with little evidence for a role of Th2 cytokines.