Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole.J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):309-16.JI
The prophylactic use of fluconazole is common in blood and marrow transplant (BMT) recipients. To evaluate how fluconazole has influenced the development of azole resistance and candidemia, weekly mouthwashings were done, and fluconazole susceptibility was determined for 1475 colonizing and invasive isolates obtained from patients undergoing BMT. Of 585 patients, 256 (44%) were colonized with Candida species during the course of BMT. Of these, 136 patients (53%) had at least 1 mouthwashing sample that yielded Candida species other than C. albicans on culture. Only 4.6% of patients developed candidemia. Overall, C. albicans was the most common colonizing isolate, but it caused only 7% of cases of candidemia. About 5% of colonizing C. albicans strains and 100% (2 of 2) invasive C. albicans strains were fluconazole-resistant. Colonization, cytomegalovirus disease, and bacteremia are risk factors for the development of candidemia. The use of prophylactic fluconazole is associated with a low incidence of candidemia and attributable mortality, despite colonization with azole-resistant Candida species in BMT recipients.