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Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production.

Abstract

Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), which is maintained at high cellular concentrations by the high n-6 and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the modern Western diet. Flaxseed oil contains the 18-carbon n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which can be converted after ingestion to the 20-carbon n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oils contain both 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid. EPA can act as a competitive inhibitor of AA conversion to PGE(2) and LTB(4), and decreased synthesis of one or both of these eicosanoids has been observed after inclusion of flaxseed oil or fish oil in the diet. Analogous to the effect of n-3 fatty acids, inclusion of the 20-carbon n-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid in the diet also results in decreased synthesis of LTB(4). Regarding the proinflammatory ctyokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta, studies of healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients have shown < or = 90% inhibition of cytokine production after dietary supplementation with fish oil. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation also reduced production of these cytokines. Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Rheumatology Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, and the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Flinders Medical Center, Bedford Park, Australia.

    ,

    Source

    The American journal of clinical nutrition 71:1 Suppl 2000 01 pg 343S-8S

    MeSH

    Arachidonic Acid
    Arthritis, Rheumatoid
    Dietary Fats
    Dinoprostone
    Docosahexaenoic Acids
    Eicosapentaenoic Acid
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Female
    Fish Oils
    Humans
    Inflammation
    Inflammation Mediators
    Interleukin-1
    Leukotriene B4
    Linseed Oil
    Male
    Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
    alpha-Linolenic Acid

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10617994

    Citation

    James, M J., et al. "Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Mediator Production." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 1 Suppl, 2000, 343S-8S.
    James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):343S-8S.
    James, M. J., Gibson, R. A., & Cleland, L. G. (2000). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(1 Suppl), 343S-8S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/71.1.343s.
    James MJ, Gibson RA, Cleland LG. Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Mediator Production. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1 Suppl):343S-8S. PubMed PMID: 10617994.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory mediator production. AU - James,M J, AU - Gibson,R A, AU - Cleland,L G, PY - 2000/1/5/pubmed PY - 2000/1/5/medline PY - 2000/1/5/entrez SP - 343S EP - 8S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 71 IS - 1 Suppl N2 - Many antiinflammatory pharmaceutical products inhibit the production of certain eicosanoids and cytokines and it is here that possibilities exist for therapies that incorporate n-3 and n-9 dietary fatty acids. The proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) are derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), which is maintained at high cellular concentrations by the high n-6 and low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the modern Western diet. Flaxseed oil contains the 18-carbon n-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid, which can be converted after ingestion to the 20-carbon n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oils contain both 20- and 22-carbon n-3 fatty acids, EPA and docosahexaenoic acid. EPA can act as a competitive inhibitor of AA conversion to PGE(2) and LTB(4), and decreased synthesis of one or both of these eicosanoids has been observed after inclusion of flaxseed oil or fish oil in the diet. Analogous to the effect of n-3 fatty acids, inclusion of the 20-carbon n-9 fatty acid eicosatrienoic acid in the diet also results in decreased synthesis of LTB(4). Regarding the proinflammatory ctyokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1beta, studies of healthy volunteers and rheumatoid arthritis patients have shown < or = 90% inhibition of cytokine production after dietary supplementation with fish oil. Use of flaxseed oil in domestic food preparation also reduced production of these cytokines. Novel antiinflammatory therapies can be developed that take advantage of positive interactions between the dietary fats and existing or newly developed pharmaceutical products. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10617994/Dietary_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_and_inflammatory_mediator_production_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/71.1.343s DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -