Craniofacial growth in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate: a roentgeno-cephalometric study.Cleft Palate J. 1976 Jul; 13:215-37.CP
This study investigated craniofacial growth in unilateral complete clefts using lateral roentgenographic cephalograms. The cleft sample was composed of 135 males and 120 females aged four, six, eight, ten, twelve and eighteen years. Control subjects included 120 non-cleft males and 120 non-cleft females of similar age to the cleft subjects. The cleft group differed from the control group in several major respects: (1) Their over-all growth trend showed a more downward or vertical direction; (2) The cranial base angle was more flattened; (3) The maxilla was smaller and was located in a more posterior and upward position; (4) Ramal height was shorter and the gonial angle was more obtuse. Chin position was generally retrognathic; (5) Skeletal profile showed less convexity; (6) Upper face height was less and lower face height was greater; (7) Both upper and lower central incisors showed a marked lingual inclination; (8) Females in both groups matured about two years earlier than did males. Underdevelopment in both the maxilla and the mandible was more pronounced in cleft females than in cleft males.