Conduct and interpretation of a dermal developmental toxicity study with KBR 3023 (a prospective insect repellent) in the Sprague-Dawley rat and Himalayan rabbit.Teratology. 2000 Mar; 61(3):222-30.T
KBR 3023, 1-(1-methyl-propoxycarbonyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperidine, a prospective insect repellent being developed by Bayer Corporation, was evaluated for developmental toxicity in the Sprague-Dawley rat and Himalayan rabbit. As the intended human usage of the test compound is topical, the test systems were exposed to the compound via the dermal route. Specifically, the animals were fitted with Elizabethan collars, to reduce the likelihood of oral ingestion, and dermally administered either 0, 50, 200, or 400 mg KBR 3023/kg (rat), and 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg KBR 3023/kg (rabbit) on gestation days 0-19 (rat) and 0-28 (rabbit). Maternal toxicity, as demonstrated by clinical signs and changes in body weight gain and food consumption during gestation, was characterized. Animals were sacrificed on gestation day 20 (rat) and 29 (rabbit), at which time fetuses were removed by cesarean section and a gross maternal necropsy was performed. All fetuses were evaluated for external anomalies. With rats, approximately half of each litter was examined for visceral effects; the other half underwent a skeletal examination. With rabbits, all fetuses underwent both visceral and skeletal examinations. No effects were observed on maternal body weight gain or food consumption in either the rat or rabbit. In the rat, dermal effects (scaling/sloughing), were observed at the dose site of all test substance-treated groups from approximately gestation day 7 until termination of the study. Also noted were an increase in both absolute and relative liver weights in rats in the 400-mg/kg dose group. In the rabbit, dermal effects (slight erythema, squamous and cracked skin) were noted at the dose site of virtually all does administered the test compound, from approximately gestation day 7 until termination. Also observed in the rabbits was a potentially compound-related increase in soft stool, particularly at the highest dose level. In both species, there were no statistically significant effects on any reproductive parameters, or any embryonic endpoints, including pre/post-implantation loss and resorptions. There were no statistically significant effects on litter size or fetal or placental weights. No test compound-related external, visceral, or skeletal findings were observed. No effect on the individual fetal or litter incidence of total malformations or variations was observed and there was no difference in the incidence of malformations between males and females. KBR 3023 Technical, administered as described in these studies, produced maternal effects in the rat (liver weight) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, and in the rabbit (soft stool) in the 200-mg/kg dose group. No developmental toxicity was observed at any dose level.