Apolipoprotein E phenotypes in healthy normal controls and demented subjects with Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in Mie Prefecture of Japan.Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999 Dec; 53(6):643-8.PC
In order to clarify the association between apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we analyzed the distribution of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) phenotypes and the frequency of the apo E alleles epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 in Japanese healthy controls (n = 1090, an average age of 51.2+/-12.6 years) and demented patients (n=103, mean age of 73.6+/-9.2 years). Demented subjects were divided into three subgroups: early-onset AD group (EOAD; n=25, mean age 63.0+/-6.2 years), late-onset AD group (LOAD; n=33, mean age 79.3+/-5.1 years), and vascular dementia group (VD; n=45, mean age 75.3+/-8.0 years). The apolipoprotein E phenotype was determined by isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting. There were no significant differences in the distribution of the apo E phenotypes by gender or age, and the estimated frequencies of epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4 were 0.05, 0.86 and 0.09, respectively, in the normal controls. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the apo E phenotypes between LOAD and elderly controls aged more than 65 years (P<0.0001). The distribution of the apo E phenotypes in EOAD was the same as that in LOAD. The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was significantly higher in LOAD (0.35, P<0.0001) and EOAD (0.28, P<0.0001) than that in the control subjects (0.07), but not in VD (0.12, P=0.1630). The present findings suggest that ApoE4 is related with both EOAD and LOAD, but not with VD, and support the hypothesis that it is a genetic risk factor of AD.