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Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment.
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Mar; 108 Suppl 1:113-22.EH

Abstract

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany. bettina.hitzfeld@uni-konstanz.deNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10698727

Citation

Hitzfeld, B C., et al. "Cyanobacterial Toxins: Removal During Drinking Water Treatment, and Human Risk Assessment." Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 108 Suppl 1, 2000, pp. 113-22.
Hitzfeld BC, Höger SJ, Dietrich DR. Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 1:113-22.
Hitzfeld, B. C., Höger, S. J., & Dietrich, D. R. (2000). Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108 Suppl 1, 113-22.
Hitzfeld BC, Höger SJ, Dietrich DR. Cyanobacterial Toxins: Removal During Drinking Water Treatment, and Human Risk Assessment. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108 Suppl 1:113-22. PubMed PMID: 10698727.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment. AU - Hitzfeld,B C, AU - Höger,S J, AU - Dietrich,D R, PY - 2000/3/4/pubmed PY - 2000/4/29/medline PY - 2000/3/4/entrez SP - 113 EP - 22 JF - Environmental health perspectives JO - Environ Health Perspect VL - 108 Suppl 1 N2 - Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that may present a hazard for drinking water safety. These toxins (microcystins, nodularins, saxitoxins, anatoxin-a, anatoxin-a(s), cylindrospermopsin) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cyanobacteria and their toxins in water bodies used for the production of drinking water poses a technical challenge for water utility managers. With respect to their removal in water treatment procedures, of the more than 60 microcystin congeners, microcystin-LR (L, L-leucine; R, L-arginine) is the best studied cyanobacterial toxin, whereas information for the other toxins is largely lacking. In response to the growing concern about nonlethal acute and chronic effects of microcystins, the World Health Organization has recently set a new provisional guideline value for microcystin-LR of 1.0 microg/L drinking water. This will lead to further efforts by water suppliers to develop effective treatment procedures to remove these toxins. Of the water treatment procedures discussed in this review, chlorination, possibly micro-/ultrafiltration, but especially ozonation are the most effective in destroying cyanobacteria and in removing microcystins. However, these treatments may not be sufficient during bloom situations or when a high organic load is present, and toxin levels should therefore be monitored during the water treatment process. In order to perform an adequate human risk assessment of microcystin exposure via drinking water, the issue of water treatment byproducts will have to be addressed in the future. SN - 0091-6765 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10698727/Cyanobacterial_toxins:_removal_during_drinking_water_treatment_and_human_risk_assessment_ L2 - https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/ehp.00108s1113?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -