Early aqueous humor analysis in patients with human ocular toxoplasmosis.J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38(3):996-1001JC
To evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of a panel of laboratory tests for ocular toxoplasmosis performed at the time of presentation, paired samples of aqueous humor and serum were collected from 49 consecutive episodes of ocular toxoplasmosis with a clinical course of less than 3 weeks. Total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The avidity of T. gondii-specific IgG was determined, and DNA extracted from aqueous humor was amplified for detection of a glycoprotein B gene sequence of T. gondii. The diagnosis was confirmed for 73% (36 of 49) of the patients; this rate rose to 79.5% if data from a later analysis of aqueous humor derived from five of the negative patients were included. The analysis of serum (detection of T. gondii-specific IgM and analysis of consecutive serum samples) alone did not contribute to the diagnosis. Calculation of local antibody production lacked diagnostic sensitivity when it was determined less than 3 weeks after the manifestation of clinical symptoms (28 of 49 patients [57%]), but this rose to 70% after an analysis of a second aqueous humor sample. The antibody avidity index attained diagnostic significance in only 8 of 43 instances (19%), and T. gondii DNA was amplified from no more than 6 of 39 (16%) aqueous humor samples. However, T. gondii-specific IgA was found within the aqueous humors of 11 of 43 patients (26%); measurement of the T. gondii-specific IgA level thus contributed substantially to the diagnostic sensitivity of the laboratory tests.