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Antioxidant intakes and smoking status: data from the continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for several chronic oxidative diseases that can be ameliorated by antioxidants.

OBJECTIVES

This study identified the typical dietary intakes and the major food group contributors of the antioxidants beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E by smoking status.

DESIGN

The 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) provided the current sample (n = 6749), who were categorized as non- (n = 3231), former (n = 1684), and current (n = 1834) smokers. In the CSFII, individuals' food intakes were estimated with two 24-h dietary recalls. Data were analyzed by using a chi-square test with a simultaneous Fisher's z test, analysis of variance with Scheffe's test, multivariate analysis of covariance, and analysis of covariance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons.

RESULTS

The sample consisted of 3707 men and 3042 women. Current smokers tended to be younger with less education and lower incomes than nonsmokers and former smokers. The average body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of current smokers was 25.8, the lowest of the 3 groups. Current smokers had the lowest dietary antioxidant intake. Fatty foods such as luncheon meats, condiments and salad dressings, and ground beef contributed more to the antioxidant intakes of current smokers than to those of the other 2 groups, whereas fruit and vegetables contributed less. Current smokers consumed the fewest numbers of servings of all nutrient-bearing groups in the food guide pyramid, except the meat group.

CONCLUSION

Future interventions should target the clustering of cigarette smoking and other unhealthy lifestyle habits, eg, an imprudent diet.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutritional Science and Dietetics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, and the Department of Nutrition, Arizona State University, Tempe.

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Antioxidants
    Ascorbic Acid
    Body Mass Index
    Diet Surveys
    Dietary Fats
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Food
    Fruit
    Humans
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Smoking
    Vegetables
    Vitamin E
    beta Carotene

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10702172

    Citation

    Ma, J, et al. "Antioxidant Intakes and Smoking Status: Data From the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes By Individuals 1994-1996." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 3, 2000, pp. 774-80.
    Ma J, Hampl JS, Betts NM. Antioxidant intakes and smoking status: data from the continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(3):774-80.
    Ma, J., Hampl, J. S., & Betts, N. M. (2000). Antioxidant intakes and smoking status: data from the continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(3), pp. 774-80.
    Ma J, Hampl JS, Betts NM. Antioxidant Intakes and Smoking Status: Data From the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes By Individuals 1994-1996. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(3):774-80. PubMed PMID: 10702172.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Antioxidant intakes and smoking status: data from the continuing survey of food intakes by individuals 1994-1996. AU - Ma,J, AU - Hampl,J S, AU - Betts,N M, PY - 2000/3/4/pubmed PY - 2000/3/18/medline PY - 2000/3/4/entrez SP - 774 EP - 80 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 71 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for several chronic oxidative diseases that can be ameliorated by antioxidants. OBJECTIVES: This study identified the typical dietary intakes and the major food group contributors of the antioxidants beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E by smoking status. DESIGN: The 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) provided the current sample (n = 6749), who were categorized as non- (n = 3231), former (n = 1684), and current (n = 1834) smokers. In the CSFII, individuals' food intakes were estimated with two 24-h dietary recalls. Data were analyzed by using a chi-square test with a simultaneous Fisher's z test, analysis of variance with Scheffe's test, multivariate analysis of covariance, and analysis of covariance with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 3707 men and 3042 women. Current smokers tended to be younger with less education and lower incomes than nonsmokers and former smokers. The average body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of current smokers was 25.8, the lowest of the 3 groups. Current smokers had the lowest dietary antioxidant intake. Fatty foods such as luncheon meats, condiments and salad dressings, and ground beef contributed more to the antioxidant intakes of current smokers than to those of the other 2 groups, whereas fruit and vegetables contributed less. Current smokers consumed the fewest numbers of servings of all nutrient-bearing groups in the food guide pyramid, except the meat group. CONCLUSION: Future interventions should target the clustering of cigarette smoking and other unhealthy lifestyle habits, eg, an imprudent diet. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10702172/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/71.3.774 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -