Specific phospholipid fatty acid composition of brain regions in mice. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency and phospholipid supplementation.J Lipid Res 2000; 41(3):465-72JL
This study examined the effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid deficiency followed or not by supplementation with phospholipids rich in n;-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on the fatty acid composition of total phospholipids in 11 brain regions. Three weeks before mating, mice were fed a semisynthetic diet containing both linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid or deficient in alpha-linolenic acid. Pups were fed the same diet as their dams. At the age of 7 weeks, a part of the deficient group were supplemented with n;-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from either egg yolk or pig brain phospholipids for 2 months. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid levels varied among brain regions and were not significantly affected by the diet. In control mice, the level of 22:6 n-3 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex compared to all regions. alpha-Linolenic acid deficiency decreased the level of 22:6 n-3 and was compensated by an increase in 22:5 n-6 in all regions. However, the brain regions were affected differently. After the pituitary gland, the frontal cortex, and the striatum were the most markedly affected with 40% reduction of 22:6 n-3. Supplementation with egg yolk or cerebral phospholipids in deficient mice restored a normal fatty acid composition in brain regions except for the frontal cortex. There was a regional distribution of the fatty acids in the brain and the impact of deficiency in alpha-linolenic acid was region-specific. Dietary egg yolk or cerebral phospholipids are an effective source of n-3 PUFA for the recovery of altered fatty acid composition induced by a diet deficient in n-3 PUFA.