APC mutation and phenotypic spectrum of Singapore familial adenomatous polyposis patients.Eur J Hum Genet. 2000 Jan; 8(1):42-8.EJ
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a familial form of colon cancer caused by mutation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Although the APC gene has been extensively studied in the Caucasian population, it has not been previously described in the Chinese population. In the present study, we investigated APC mutation and phenotypic spectrum in the Singapore FAP families who are predominantly Chinese. The protein truncation test (PTT) was used to screen the entire APC gene for germline mutations in 28 unrelated families. Fifteen different mutations were identified in 22 families. Eight mutations were 1-11 basepair deletions or insertions; three involved deletions of whole exons and four were nonsense mutations. Nine of the mutations, including two complex rearrangements, are novel. Eight families including three de novo cases have the same (AAAGA) deletion at codon 1309, indicating that like the Western families, codon 1309 is also the mutation 'hot spot' for Singapore FAP families. In contrast, we did not find any mutation in codon 1061, the second hot spot for the Western population. Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) is consistently associated with the prescribed domain (codons 463 to 1387) and is the only phenotype with no intra-family variation. Other than CHRPE, differences in the type and frequency of extracolonic manifestations within the FAP families suggest the influence of modifying genes and environmental factors.