Induction of specific immunoglobulin A and Th2 immune responses to P6 outer membrane protein of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in middle ear mucosa by intranasal immunization.Infect Immun. 2000 Apr; 68(4):2294-300.II
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is a major pathogen of otitis media. One of the outer membrane proteins of NTHI, P6, is an antigen common to all strains and is considered as a candidate for mucosal vaccine. To elucidate the possibility of developing a nasal vaccine against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) and to investigate mucosal immune responses in the middle ear, mice were immunized intranasally with the P6 outer membrane protein of NTHI, and P6-specific immune responses in the middle ear mucosa were examined. Mice were given with P6 and cholera toxin intranasally as an adjuvant on days 0, 7, and 14 and were killed on day 21. The P6-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody titer in ear wash was significantly elevated. Mononuclear cells were isolated from middle ear mucosa, and an increase in P6-specific IgA-producing cells was shown with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. In addition, an increase in memory T cells in middle ear mucosa was detected with flow cytometric analysis after intranasal immunization. Moreover, in vitro stimulation with P6 resulted in proliferation of purified CD4(+) T cells from immunized mice, and these T cells expressed Th2 cytokine mRNA. These results indicate that P6-specific IgA-B-cell immune responses and selected Th2 cytokine expressing Th cells were induced in middle ear mucosa by intranasal immunization. These findings suggest that a nasal vaccine is useful for preventing otitis media with effusion.