Isothermal Fourier transform infrared microspectrosopic studies on the stability kinetics of solid-state intramolecular cyclization of aspartame sweetener.J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar; 48(3):631-5.JA
A novel Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrophotometer equipped with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the kinetics of intramolecular cyclization of aspartame (APM) sweetener in the solid state under isothermal conditions. The thermal-dependent changes in the peak intensity of IR spectra at 1543, 1283, and 1259 cm(-1) were examined to explore the reaction. The results support that the intramolecular cyclization process in APM proceeded in three steps: the methoxyl group of ester was first thermolyzed to release methanol, then an acyl cation was attacked by the lone pair of electrons available on nitrogen by an S(N)1 pathway, and finally ring-closure occurred. The intramolecular cyclization of APM determined by this microscopic FT-IR/DSC system was found to follow zero-order kinetics after a brief induction period. The bond cleavage energy (259.38 kJ/mol) of thermolysis for the leaving group of -OCH(3), the bond conversion energy (328.88 kJ/mol) for the amide II NH band to DKP NH band, and the CN bond formation energy (326.93 kJ/mol) of cyclization for the DKP in the APM molecule were also calculated from the Arrhenius equation. The total activation energy of the DKP formation via intramolecular cyclization was 261.33 kJ/mol, calculated by the above summation of the bond energy of cleavage, conversion, and formation, which was near to the value determined by the DSC or TGA method. This indicates that the microscopic FT-IR/DSC system is useful as a potential tool not only to investigate the degradation mechanism of drugs in the solid state but also to directly predict the bond energy of the reaction.