The role of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) in pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).J Med Assoc Thai 1999; 82 Suppl 1:S16-21JM
In previous studies it has been demonstrated that the levels of plasma 6 keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-K-PGF1), the stable metabolite of PGI2 were elevated in DHF patients during shock. In this study it is hypothesized that excessive PGI2 production plays a very important role in developing serious clinical manifestations of dengue shock syndrome (DSS) patients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine whether TXA2 has any significant role in such patients. Plasma 6-K-PGF1 and thromboxane B2 (TXB2), the stable metabolites of TXA2 were determined in 43 normal healthy children (NC) and 54 DHF patients without shock (DHF-N) and 33 DHF patients with shock (DHF-S). Subjects aged between 2 and 14 years. Plasma 6-K-PGF1 and TXB2 were measured by radioimmunoassay and the ratio of TXB2/6-K-PGF1 were also calculated. In 43 NC the values of plasma TXB2, 6-K-PGF1 and TXB2/6-K-PGF1 ratio were (mean +/- SE) 372.3 +/- 17.1, 150.1 +/- 2.4 and 2.52 +/- 0.12 pg/ml, respectively. In 54 DHF-N patients the corresponding values were 409.1 +/- 16.0, 278.4 +/- 11.6 and 1.54 +/- 0.06 pg/ml; whereas those in 33 DHF-S patients were 254.3 +/- 26.2, 349.1 +/- 20.5 and 0.757 +/- 0.073 pg/ml, respectively. Plasma 6-K-PGF1 levels of DHF-N and DHF-S patients were significantly greater than those in normal children (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 respectively). The plasma 6-K-PGF1 levels seem to be greater in DHF-S patients than in the DHF-N patients, however the difference in values were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that plasma PGI2 level is significantly increased in DHF particularly during shock. Plasma TXB2 levels of DHF-N had no significant statistical difference from those of NC (p > 0.05); however, those in DHF-S patients were significantly lowered (p < 0.001) than those of NC and DHF-N patients. The findings suggest the important role of TXA2 to compensate for excessive PGI2 secretion in DHF patients. The failure or inadequate TXA2 production may eventually lead to shock. The ratios were significantly reduced in both DHF-N and DHF-S patients when compared to those of NC (p < 0.001 both). The ratio in DHF-S patients was also significantly lowered than that in DHF-N patients (p < 0.001). It is suggested that the imbalance between TXA2 and PGI2 production exists during DHF infection. The more reduction of plasma TXA2/PGI2 ratio leads to more overt and serious clinical manifestations of the disease.