Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging.
J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Apr; 114(4):654-60.JI

Abstract

The stratum corneum requires ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids to provide the cutaneous permeability barrier. The lipids are organized in intercellular membranes exhibiting short- and long-periodicity lamellar phases. In recent years, the phase behavior of barrier lipid mixtures has been studied in vitro. The relationship of human stratum corneum lipid composition to membrane organization in vivo, however, has not been clearly established. Furthermore, the special function of the different ceramide species in the stratum corneum is largely unknown. We examined lipid organization and composition of stratum corneum sheets from different subtypes of healthy human skin (normal, dry, and aged skin). Lipid organization was investigated using X-ray diffraction and demonstrated that the 4.4 nm peak attributed to the long periodicity phase was frequently missing for skin with a low Cer(EOS)/Cer(total) ratio, indicating an important part for Cer(EOS), which contains omega-hydroxy fatty acid (O) ester-linked to linoleic acid (E) and amide-linked to sphingosine (S). A deficiency in the 4. 4 nm peak was predominantly observed in young dry skin. In one case of aged skin, however, and less often in young normal skin this peak was also missing. Furthermore, the ceramide composition of samples without the 4.4 nm peak showed a deficiency of Cer(EOH), which contains 6-hydroxy-4-sphingenine (H), and an increase in Cer(NS) and Cer(AS), which contain nonhydroxy (N) or alpha-hydroxy fatty acids (A). In addition, a 3.4 nm peak attributed to crystalline cholesterol occurred in most cases of aged and dry skin, but was not observed in young normal skin. Our results do not indicate a definite pattern of correlation between lipid organization and types of human skin. They demonstrate, however, that Cer(EOS) and Cer(EOH) are key elements for the molecular organization of the long periodicity lamellar phase in the human stratum corneum.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Paul-Gerson-Unna Skin Research Center, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10733669

Citation

Schreiner, V, et al. "Barrier Characteristics of Different Human Skin Types Investigated With X-ray Diffraction, Lipid Analysis, and Electron Microscopy Imaging." The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 114, no. 4, 2000, pp. 654-60.
Schreiner V, Gooris GS, Pfeiffer S, et al. Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114(4):654-60.
Schreiner, V., Gooris, G. S., Pfeiffer, S., Lanzendörfer, G., Wenck, H., Diembeck, W., Proksch, E., & Bouwstra, J. (2000). Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 114(4), 654-60.
Schreiner V, et al. Barrier Characteristics of Different Human Skin Types Investigated With X-ray Diffraction, Lipid Analysis, and Electron Microscopy Imaging. J Invest Dermatol. 2000;114(4):654-60. PubMed PMID: 10733669.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Barrier characteristics of different human skin types investigated with X-ray diffraction, lipid analysis, and electron microscopy imaging. AU - Schreiner,V, AU - Gooris,G S, AU - Pfeiffer,S, AU - Lanzendörfer,G, AU - Wenck,H, AU - Diembeck,W, AU - Proksch,E, AU - Bouwstra,J, PY - 2000/3/25/pubmed PY - 2000/6/3/medline PY - 2000/3/25/entrez SP - 654 EP - 60 JF - The Journal of investigative dermatology JO - J Invest Dermatol VL - 114 IS - 4 N2 - The stratum corneum requires ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids to provide the cutaneous permeability barrier. The lipids are organized in intercellular membranes exhibiting short- and long-periodicity lamellar phases. In recent years, the phase behavior of barrier lipid mixtures has been studied in vitro. The relationship of human stratum corneum lipid composition to membrane organization in vivo, however, has not been clearly established. Furthermore, the special function of the different ceramide species in the stratum corneum is largely unknown. We examined lipid organization and composition of stratum corneum sheets from different subtypes of healthy human skin (normal, dry, and aged skin). Lipid organization was investigated using X-ray diffraction and demonstrated that the 4.4 nm peak attributed to the long periodicity phase was frequently missing for skin with a low Cer(EOS)/Cer(total) ratio, indicating an important part for Cer(EOS), which contains omega-hydroxy fatty acid (O) ester-linked to linoleic acid (E) and amide-linked to sphingosine (S). A deficiency in the 4. 4 nm peak was predominantly observed in young dry skin. In one case of aged skin, however, and less often in young normal skin this peak was also missing. Furthermore, the ceramide composition of samples without the 4.4 nm peak showed a deficiency of Cer(EOH), which contains 6-hydroxy-4-sphingenine (H), and an increase in Cer(NS) and Cer(AS), which contain nonhydroxy (N) or alpha-hydroxy fatty acids (A). In addition, a 3.4 nm peak attributed to crystalline cholesterol occurred in most cases of aged and dry skin, but was not observed in young normal skin. Our results do not indicate a definite pattern of correlation between lipid organization and types of human skin. They demonstrate, however, that Cer(EOS) and Cer(EOH) are key elements for the molecular organization of the long periodicity lamellar phase in the human stratum corneum. SN - 0022-202X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10733669/Barrier_characteristics_of_different_human_skin_types_investigated_with_X_ray_diffraction_lipid_analysis_and_electron_microscopy_imaging_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-202X(15)40833-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -