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Basal concentrations and acute responses of serum hormones and strength development during heavy resistance training in middle-aged and elderly men and women.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000 Feb; 55(2):B95-105.JG

Abstract

Effects of 6 months of heavy resistance training combined with explosive exercises on both basal concentrations and acute responses of total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), as well as voluntary neural activation and maximal strength of knee extensors were examined in 10 middle-aged men (M40; 42 +/- 2 years), 11 middle-aged women (W40; 39 +/- 3 years), 11 elderly men (M70; 72 +/- 3 years), and in 10 elderly women (W70; 67 +/- 3 years). The maximal integrated electromyographic (iEMG) and 1 repetition maximum (RM) knee-extension values remained unaltered in all groups during a 1-month control period with no strength training. During the 6-month training the 1RM values increased in M40 by 27 +/- 9% (p < .001), in M70 by 16 +/- 6% (p < .001), in W40 by 28 +/- 11% (p < .001), and in W70 by 24 +/- 10% (p < .001). The iEMGs of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles increased(p < .05-.001) in M40, M70, W40, and W70. No systematic changes occurred during the experimental period in the mean concentrations of serum total and free testosterone, DHEA, DHEAS, GH, cortisol, or SHBG. However, the mean levels of individual serum free testosterone in W70 and serum testosterone in the total group of women correlated with the individual changes recorded in strength during the training (r = .55,p <.05; and r = .43,p <.05). The single exercise session both before and after the training resulted in significant responses in serum total and free testosterone concentrations in both male groups (p <.05-.01), but not in the female groups, as well as in serum GH levels in all groups (p <.05-.01) except W70 (ns). In summary, the present strength training led to great increases in maximal strength not only in middle-aged but also in elderly men and women. The strength gains were accompanied by large increases in the maximal voluntary activation of the trained muscles. None of the groups showed systematic changes in the mean serum concentrations of hormones examined. However, a low level of testosterone, especially in older women, may be a limiting factor in strength development and testosterone could mediate interactions with the nervous system contributing to strength development. The physiological significance of the lack of acute responsiveness of serum GH to heavy resistance exercise in older women for their trainability during prolonged strength training requires further examination.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Neuromuscular Research Center and Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Hakkinen@Maila.jyu.fiNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10737684

Citation

Häkkinen, K, et al. "Basal Concentrations and Acute Responses of Serum Hormones and Strength Development During Heavy Resistance Training in Middle-aged and Elderly Men and Women." The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, vol. 55, no. 2, 2000, pp. B95-105.
Häkkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, et al. Basal concentrations and acute responses of serum hormones and strength development during heavy resistance training in middle-aged and elderly men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55(2):B95-105.
Häkkinen, K., Pakarinen, A., Kraemer, W. J., Newton, R. U., & Alen, M. (2000). Basal concentrations and acute responses of serum hormones and strength development during heavy resistance training in middle-aged and elderly men and women. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(2), B95-105.
Häkkinen K, et al. Basal Concentrations and Acute Responses of Serum Hormones and Strength Development During Heavy Resistance Training in Middle-aged and Elderly Men and Women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55(2):B95-105. PubMed PMID: 10737684.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Basal concentrations and acute responses of serum hormones and strength development during heavy resistance training in middle-aged and elderly men and women. AU - Häkkinen,K, AU - Pakarinen,A, AU - Kraemer,W J, AU - Newton,R U, AU - Alen,M, PY - 2000/3/29/pubmed PY - 2000/4/15/medline PY - 2000/3/29/entrez SP - B95 EP - 105 JF - The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences JO - J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. VL - 55 IS - 2 N2 - Effects of 6 months of heavy resistance training combined with explosive exercises on both basal concentrations and acute responses of total and free testosterone, growth hormone (GH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), as well as voluntary neural activation and maximal strength of knee extensors were examined in 10 middle-aged men (M40; 42 +/- 2 years), 11 middle-aged women (W40; 39 +/- 3 years), 11 elderly men (M70; 72 +/- 3 years), and in 10 elderly women (W70; 67 +/- 3 years). The maximal integrated electromyographic (iEMG) and 1 repetition maximum (RM) knee-extension values remained unaltered in all groups during a 1-month control period with no strength training. During the 6-month training the 1RM values increased in M40 by 27 +/- 9% (p < .001), in M70 by 16 +/- 6% (p < .001), in W40 by 28 +/- 11% (p < .001), and in W70 by 24 +/- 10% (p < .001). The iEMGs of the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles increased(p < .05-.001) in M40, M70, W40, and W70. No systematic changes occurred during the experimental period in the mean concentrations of serum total and free testosterone, DHEA, DHEAS, GH, cortisol, or SHBG. However, the mean levels of individual serum free testosterone in W70 and serum testosterone in the total group of women correlated with the individual changes recorded in strength during the training (r = .55,p <.05; and r = .43,p <.05). The single exercise session both before and after the training resulted in significant responses in serum total and free testosterone concentrations in both male groups (p <.05-.01), but not in the female groups, as well as in serum GH levels in all groups (p <.05-.01) except W70 (ns). In summary, the present strength training led to great increases in maximal strength not only in middle-aged but also in elderly men and women. The strength gains were accompanied by large increases in the maximal voluntary activation of the trained muscles. None of the groups showed systematic changes in the mean serum concentrations of hormones examined. However, a low level of testosterone, especially in older women, may be a limiting factor in strength development and testosterone could mediate interactions with the nervous system contributing to strength development. The physiological significance of the lack of acute responsiveness of serum GH to heavy resistance exercise in older women for their trainability during prolonged strength training requires further examination. SN - 1079-5006 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10737684/Basal_concentrations_and_acute_responses_of_serum_hormones_and_strength_development_during_heavy_resistance_training_in_middle_aged_and_elderly_men_and_women_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/gerona/55.2.b95 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -