A pleckstrin homology domain specific for phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) and fused to green fluorescent protein identifies plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P2 as being important in exocytosis.J Biol Chem. 2000 Jun 09; 275(23):17878-85.JB
Kinetically distinct steps can be distinguished in the secretory response from neuroendocrine cells with slow ATP-dependent priming steps preceding the triggering of exocytosis by Ca(2+). One of these priming steps involves the maintenance of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P(2)) through lipid kinases and is responsible for at least 70% of the ATP-dependent secretion observed in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is usually thought to reside on the plasma membrane. However, because phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase is an integral chromaffin granule membrane protein, PtdIns-4,5-P(2) important in exocytosis may reside on the chromaffin granule membrane. In the present study we have investigated the localization of PtdIns-4,5-P(2) that is involved in exocytosis by transiently expressing in chromaffin cells a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that specifically binds PtdIns-4, 5-P(2) and is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). The PH-GFP protein predominantly associated with the plasma membrane in chromaffin cells without any detectable association with chromaffin granules. Rhodamine-neomycin, which also binds to PtdIns-4,5-P(2), showed a similar subcellular localization. The transiently expressed PH-GFP inhibited exocytosis as measured by both biochemical and electrophysiological techniques. The results indicate that the inhibition was at a step after Ca(2+) entry and suggest that plasma membrane PtdIns-4,5-P(2) is important for exocytosis. Expression of PH-GFP also reduced calcium currents, raising the possibility that PtdIns-4,5-P(2) in some manner alters calcium channel function in chromaffin cells.