Total evidence: molecules, morphology, and the phylogenetics of cichlid fishes.J Exp Zool. 2000 Apr 15; 288(1):76-92.JE
We present a most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the family Cichlidae. New data analyzed include mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences and two nuclear loci (Tmo-M27 and Tmo-4C4) for a large taxonomic sampling with emphasis on South American species. We also incorporate a published morphological data set for a total evidence analysis. Character congruence among mitochondrial (74 taxa) and nuclear data (50 taxa) was high. However, partition-homogeneity tests suggest significant heterogeneity among molecular and morphological data. In agreement with results obtained from molecular data alone, total evidence analysis (1,460 characters for 34 taxa) supports a robust phylogenetic hypothesis for the family Cichlidae that is congruent with drift-vicariance events associated with the fragmentation of Gondwana. Our analyses confirm the placement of Malagasy/Indian cichlids as the most basal lineages, with a sister-group relationship to the monophyletic African and Neotropical clades. Total evidence suggests that the controversial African genus Heterochromis is at the base of the African radiation. Among more than 50 Neotropical genera analyzed, Retroculus is identified as the basal taxon, with successive branching of Cichla, Astronotus, geophagines (including crenicichlines) + chaetobranchines, and cichlasomines + heroines. Relative rate tests applied to mitochondrial DNA suggest significantly higher rates of genetic variation in Neotropical than in African taxa, and both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences show that rate heterogeneity among Neotropical lineages is confined to the geophagine cichlids.