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What parts of PTSD are normal: intrusion, avoidance, or arousal? Data from the Northridge, California, earthquake.
J Trauma Stress. 2000 Jan; 13(1):57-75.JT

Abstract

The incidence and comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are addressed in a study of 130 Northridge, California, earthquake survivors interviewed 3 months post-disaster. Only 13% of the sample met full PTSD criteria, but 48% met both the re-experiencing and the arousal symptom criteria, without meeting the avoidance and numbing symptom criterion. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated mostly with avoidance and numbing symptoms. For moderately severe traumatic events, re-experiencing and arousal symptoms may be the most "normal," and survivors with a history of psychiatric problems may be those most likely to develop full PTSD. A system that considers people who meet all three symptom criteria to have a psychiatric disorder yet recognizes the distress of other symptomatic survivors may best serve traumatized populations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Mental Health Services Research, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10761174

Citation

McMillen, J C., et al. "What Parts of PTSD Are Normal: Intrusion, Avoidance, or Arousal? Data From the Northridge, California, Earthquake." Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol. 13, no. 1, 2000, pp. 57-75.
McMillen JC, North CS, Smith EM. What parts of PTSD are normal: intrusion, avoidance, or arousal? Data from the Northridge, California, earthquake. J Trauma Stress. 2000;13(1):57-75.
McMillen, J. C., North, C. S., & Smith, E. M. (2000). What parts of PTSD are normal: intrusion, avoidance, or arousal? Data from the Northridge, California, earthquake. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13(1), 57-75.
McMillen JC, North CS, Smith EM. What Parts of PTSD Are Normal: Intrusion, Avoidance, or Arousal? Data From the Northridge, California, Earthquake. J Trauma Stress. 2000;13(1):57-75. PubMed PMID: 10761174.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - What parts of PTSD are normal: intrusion, avoidance, or arousal? Data from the Northridge, California, earthquake. AU - McMillen,J C, AU - North,C S, AU - Smith,E M, PY - 2000/4/13/pubmed PY - 2000/6/8/medline PY - 2000/4/13/entrez SP - 57 EP - 75 JF - Journal of traumatic stress JO - J Trauma Stress VL - 13 IS - 1 N2 - The incidence and comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are addressed in a study of 130 Northridge, California, earthquake survivors interviewed 3 months post-disaster. Only 13% of the sample met full PTSD criteria, but 48% met both the re-experiencing and the arousal symptom criteria, without meeting the avoidance and numbing symptom criterion. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated mostly with avoidance and numbing symptoms. For moderately severe traumatic events, re-experiencing and arousal symptoms may be the most "normal," and survivors with a history of psychiatric problems may be those most likely to develop full PTSD. A system that considers people who meet all three symptom criteria to have a psychiatric disorder yet recognizes the distress of other symptomatic survivors may best serve traumatized populations. SN - 0894-9867 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10761174/What_parts_of_PTSD_are_normal:_intrusion_avoidance_or_arousal_Data_from_the_Northridge_California_earthquake_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007768830246 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -