Enhanced retention of glass-ionomer sealant by enamel etching: a microleakage and scanning electron microscopic study.Quintessence Int. 1999 Oct; 30(10):712-8.QI
A microleakage study and a scanning electron microscopic investigation were conducted to test whether etching of enamel would improve adhesion of glass-ionomer cement sealants to fissure enamel.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
Forty-eight extracted human molars and premolars were divided into 2 equal groups, and their crowns were cleaned with pumice. In group 1 enamel was etched for 45 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. In group 2, enamel was not etched. Glass-ionomer sealant was applied to all 48 teeth. Twenty teeth from each group were thermocycled in water (120 cycles between 0 degree C and 56 degrees C) and stained with 0.5% methylene blue solution. The remaining 4 teeth from each group served as a control for the scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Twelve teeth from each group were cut into 5 sections, and 12 were cleaved into 3 sections in a buccolingual direction.
Statistically significant differences in amounts of microleakage were found between group 1 and group 2. Minimal microleakage was detected in 90% of the etched teeth, whereas extensive microleakage was observed in 85% of nonetched teeth. The scanning electron microscopic evaluation correlated positively with the microleakage observations. The etched teeth revealed a cohesive failure within the sealant material, while the nonetched teeth demonstrated an adhesive failure at the sealant-enamel interface. Observation of the nonthermocycled teeth confirmed those findings.
Results suggested that etching prior to application enhances the bonding of glass-ionomer sealant to fissure enamel.