Intravenous sedation in pediatric dentistry using midazolam, nalbuphine and droperidol.Pediatr Dent. 2000 Mar-Apr; 22(2):113-9.PD
The purpose of this pilot investigation was to study the efficacy, physiologic responses, and safety of a multi-drug intravenous conscious sedation technique in an outpatient setting in children who demonstrated uncooperative behavior when comprehensive restorative dental treatment was attempted.
Using a time-based sedation record, the physiologic responses of 153 healthy children, age range 23 months to 14.5 years, were measured after they had received midazolam (Versed), nalbuphine (Nubain), and droperidol (Inapsine), each administered intravenously, and nitrous oxide and oxygen administered by nasal mask, while each child received comprehensive restorative or surgical dental care. Each patient was monitored according to the American Academy of Pediatrics Sedation Guidelines. Heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, level of sedation, and behavioral responses were recorded preoperatively, at 5 minute intervals during treatment and in recovery until discharge. Sedation was titrated to Level 2 or 3 during treatment as defined by the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Reference Manual.
For each child, the sedation level was judged to be either acceptable or optimal for the completion of all planned dental treatment. There were no sedation failures. Children under 20 kg required significantly higher dosages of each sedative medication than children more than 20 kg to achieve the same level of sedation (P < 0.001, ANOVA). There were no episodes of intraoperative vomiting, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory depression requiring respiratory support, or dysphoria during treatment, in the recovery period, or after discharge.
This multi-drug intravenous conscious sedation technique is a safe and effective method to control the behavior of uncooperative children who require comprehensive dental treatment.