Specific and rapid induction of the proapoptotic protein Hrk after growth factor withdrawal in hematopoietic progenitor cells.
Hrk is a newly described proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that is mainly expressed in hematopoietic tissues and cultured neurons. In this study we have examined the expression and activity of Hrk in hematopoietic progenitors. To address these issues, we used 3 growth factor-dependent murine hematopoietic cell lines, HCD-57, FDCP-Mix, and FL5.12. The expression of Hrk was undetectable in cells cultured with growth factors, but it was rapidly up-regulated on growth factor withdrawal. In contrast, the expression of Bcl-x(L) decreased and that of proapoptotic Bax, Bad, and Bak was unchanged or down-regulated after removal of growth factors. This pattern of expression correlated with the induction of apoptosis. Hrk was also up-regulated in human cell lines and in bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells cultured in the absence of growth factors. In addition, the levels of Hrk were up-regulated after treatment with the chemotherapeutic drug etoposide. Expression of prosurvival Bcl-x(L) or Bcl-2 proteins blocked the induction of Hrk. Hrk was induced in FDCP-Mix cells treated with ionomicin in the presence of IL-3, suggesting that cytosolic calcium may regulate the expression of this proapoptotic protein. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Hrk induced cell death of hematopoietic progenitors in the presence of IL-3. Thus, Hrk is specifically and rapidly induced in hematopoietic progenitors after growth factor deprivation or treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs, and this may be sufficient to induce apoptosis in these cells. (Blood. 2000;95:2742-2747)
Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, INSALUD, Santander, Spain., , , ,
Bone Marrow Cells
Gene Expression Regulation
Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
bcl-2 Homologous Antagonist-Killer Protein
bcl-2-Associated X Protein
bcl-Associated Death Protein
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.