Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in parkinsonian patients.Clin Neurosci. 1998; 5(2):153-66.CN
Cardiovascular dysfunction may occur in parkinsonian patients for a variety of reasons. Patients usually are more than 50 years old and on various drugs (both antiparkinsonian and for associated medical disorders), some of which may have cardiovascular effects. Autonomic failure increases with age and also is recognized in parkinsonian patients who have the disorder multiple system atrophy, in which there is substantial cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, recognition of cardiovascular dysfunction and its causes in parkinsonian patients is of importance in diagnosis (in separating the various parkinsonian diseases), in determining prognosis, and finally in management. This article outlines the major areas of cardiovascular dysfunction, including disorders of blood pressure control, heart rate, and regional circulation, especially to vital organs. Clinical features and evaluation are described, together with abnormalities in different parkinsonian disorders and the principles of management.