Influence of LDL apheresis on LDL subtypes in patients with coronary heart disease and severe hyperlipoproteinemia.J Lipid Res. 2000 May; 41(5):727-33.JL
Epidemiologic studies and in vitro experiments indicate that low density lipoprotein (LDL) subtypes differ concerning their atherogenic potential. Small, dense LDL are more atherogenic than large, buoyant LDL. LDL apheresis is a potent therapeutic modality to lower elevated LDL-cholesterol. It is unknown whether such therapy induces a shift in the LDL subtype distribution. In this study we evaluated the influence of LDL apheresis on the LDL subtype distribution in patients with CHD and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, n = 22), combined hyperlipidemia (CHLP, n = 6), or Lp[a]-hyperlipoproteinemia (Lp[a]-HLP, n = 4) regularly treated by LDL apheresis (immunoadsorption (n = 14), HELP apheresis (n = 8), dextran sulfate adsorption (n = 7), cascade filtration (n = 3)). On the basis of 6 LDL subfractions (d 1.020;-1.057 g/mL) isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation the LDL-density profile was determined in each patient before and after apheresis. There was a relative increase of LDL-subfractions 1, 2, and 3 (P < 0.01, P < 0. 05, and P < 0.01, respectively) and a concomitant decrease of LDL subfractions 5 and 6 (P < 0.05) after apheresis. Subgroup analysis indicates that the degree of the small, dense LDL reduction was much more prominent in patients with CHLP compared to patients with FH or Lp[a]-HLP, whereas the type of apheresis technique had no effect. The extent of small, dense LDL reduction correlated with the preapheresis concentrations of small, dense LDL and triglycerides but not with the extent of triglyceride reduction.We conclude that LDL apheresis not only decreases LDL mass, but also improves LDL-density profile, particularly in patients with CHLP.