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Pandemic influenza is a zoonosis, as it requires introduction of avian-like gene segments in the human population.

Abstract

Human influenza viruses manage to cause epidemics almost every year. The circulating viruses change their surface glycoproteins by accumulating mutations (antigenic drift) which results in variant viruses of the same subtype that are able to evade the immune pressure in the population. Every now and then, a completely new subtype of influenza A virus is introduced in the human population, which can result in an influenza pandemic. Pandemic human influenza viruses have been emerging for many centuries. Based on the genetic information of influenza viruses that have been isolated in this century, introduction of genes of the avian influenza virus reservoir obviously is required. Interspecies transmission, via another mammalian host and reassortment of avian and human influenza viruses are potential mechanisms for such an introduction. A summary of the cases in which influenza viruses containing avian-like gene segments were introduced into the human population is presented. In three cases, such infections resulted in conjunctivitis. Influenza-like illness and even pneumonia was reported in some other infections. Finally, a mortality rate of 33% was observed in the avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses that infected 18 people in Hong Kong in 1997. Although some of these viruses fulfilled some criteria of pandemic influenza viruses, they lacked the ability to rapidly spread through the human population.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Department of Virology, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands. e.claas@lumc.nl

    Source

    Veterinary microbiology 74:1-2 2000 May 22 pg 133-9

    MeSH

    Animals
    Antigenic Variation
    Disease Outbreaks
    Humans
    Influenza A virus
    Influenza, Human
    Orthomyxoviridae
    Reassortant Viruses
    Seasons
    Zoonoses

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10799785

    Citation

    Claas, E C.. "Pandemic Influenza Is a Zoonosis, as It Requires Introduction of Avian-like Gene Segments in the Human Population." Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 74, no. 1-2, 2000, pp. 133-9.
    Claas EC. Pandemic influenza is a zoonosis, as it requires introduction of avian-like gene segments in the human population. Vet Microbiol. 2000;74(1-2):133-9.
    Claas, E. C. (2000). Pandemic influenza is a zoonosis, as it requires introduction of avian-like gene segments in the human population. Veterinary Microbiology, 74(1-2), pp. 133-9.
    Claas EC. Pandemic Influenza Is a Zoonosis, as It Requires Introduction of Avian-like Gene Segments in the Human Population. Vet Microbiol. 2000 May 22;74(1-2):133-9. PubMed PMID: 10799785.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Pandemic influenza is a zoonosis, as it requires introduction of avian-like gene segments in the human population. A1 - Claas,E C, PY - 2000/5/9/pubmed PY - 2000/7/15/medline PY - 2000/5/9/entrez SP - 133 EP - 9 JF - Veterinary microbiology JO - Vet. Microbiol. VL - 74 IS - 1-2 N2 - Human influenza viruses manage to cause epidemics almost every year. The circulating viruses change their surface glycoproteins by accumulating mutations (antigenic drift) which results in variant viruses of the same subtype that are able to evade the immune pressure in the population. Every now and then, a completely new subtype of influenza A virus is introduced in the human population, which can result in an influenza pandemic. Pandemic human influenza viruses have been emerging for many centuries. Based on the genetic information of influenza viruses that have been isolated in this century, introduction of genes of the avian influenza virus reservoir obviously is required. Interspecies transmission, via another mammalian host and reassortment of avian and human influenza viruses are potential mechanisms for such an introduction. A summary of the cases in which influenza viruses containing avian-like gene segments were introduced into the human population is presented. In three cases, such infections resulted in conjunctivitis. Influenza-like illness and even pneumonia was reported in some other infections. Finally, a mortality rate of 33% was observed in the avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses that infected 18 people in Hong Kong in 1997. Although some of these viruses fulfilled some criteria of pandemic influenza viruses, they lacked the ability to rapidly spread through the human population. SN - 0378-1135 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10799785/Pandemic_influenza_is_a_zoonosis_as_it_requires_introduction_of_avian_like_gene_segments_in_the_human_population_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378-1135(00)00173-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -