Comparative effects of perilla and fish oils on the activity and gene expression of fatty acid oxidation enzymes in rat liver.Biochim Biophys Acta 2000; 1485(1):23-35BB
The activity and mRNA level of hepatic enzymes in fatty acid oxidation and synthesis were compared in rats fed diets containing either 15% saturated fat (palm oil), safflower oil rich in linoleic acid, perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid or fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) for 15 days. The mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate was 50% higher in rats fed perilla and fish oils than in the other groups. Perilla and fish oils compared to palm and safflower oils approximately doubled and more than tripled, respectively, peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation rate. Compared to palm and safflower oil, both perilla and fish oils caused a 50% increase in carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity. Dietary fats rich in n-3 fatty acids also increased the activity of other fatty acid oxidation enzymes except for 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The extent of the increase was greater with fish oil than with perilla oil. Interestingly, both perilla and fish oils decreased the activity of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase measured using short- and medium-chain substrates. Compared to palm and safflower oils, perilla and fish oils increased the mRNA level of many mitochondrial and peroxisomal enzymes. Increases were generally greater with fish oil than with perilla oil. Fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase activity and mRNA level were higher in rats fed palm oil than in the other groups. Among rats fed polyunsaturated fats, activities and mRNA levels of these enzymes were lower in rats fed fish oil than in the animals fed perilla and safflower oils. The values were comparable between the latter two groups. Safflower and fish oils but not perilla oil, compared to palm oil, also decreased malic enzyme activity and mRNA level. Examination of the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipid indicated that dietary alpha-linolenic acid is effectively desaturated and elongated to form EPA and DHA. Dietary perilla oil and fish oil therefore exert similar physiological activity in modulating hepatic fatty acid oxidation, but these dietary fats considerably differ in affecting fatty acid synthesis.