[Facial hemangioma associated with arterial anomalies, coarctation of the aorta, and eye abnormalities: PHACES syndrome].Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2000 Mar; 127(3):292-5.AD
Hemangiomas are frequent in childhood. Their association with dysmorphic anomalies is rare. Recently, the acronym "PHACES syndrome" was proposed to emphasize the association of Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta and cardiac defects, Eye abnormalities, and Sternal malformations.
A female child, 3 months old, had a large facial hemangioma. The physical examination was normal otherwise. A choroidal hemangioma and a papillary abnormality, causing amblyopia, were detected. The brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. A subglottic hemangioma was found at endoscopy. At the age of 16 months, physical examination disclosed a heart murmur and coarctation of the aorta was detected. Moreover, the cardiac angiography showed diffuse arterial lesions. Strict surveillance was decided as there were no manifestations.
Different abnormalities have been described to be associated with large facial hemangiomas. Frieden has grouped these abnormalities under the acronym PHACES. She described 43 hemangiomas and found 74 p. 100 Dandy Walker malformations and other posterior fossa malformations, 41 p. 100 arterial anomalies, 26 p. 100 cardiac or aortic malformations, 23 p. 100 ophthalmologic abnormalities. There is a high risk for the hemangiomas to develop in an airway localization. The prevalence of facial hemangiomas associated with other malformations is, to our knowledge, not known. In our department, 56 children were treated with corticosteroid therapy for severe facial hemangioma. 11 p. 100 had a cerebral abnormality. There were no cases with cardiac malformation or dysmorphism. PHACES syndrome is very rare but easy to remember. Thus in patients presenting a large facial hemangioma, it is important to conduct an attentive neurological examination completed by brain imaging and an extensive cardiovascular exploration. Special attention should be given to the ophthalmologic and sternal examinations as well as the search for hemangiomas in an airway localization.