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Effects of allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa on the severity of rhinovirus 16 cold.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Despite the strong association of asthma exacerbations with rhinovirus (RV) infection, inoculation of asthmatic subjects with RV only causes small changes in lower airway function, suggesting that RV infection is not itself sufficient to provoke asthma exacerbations.

OBJECTIVE

Our purpose was to test whether allergic inflammation increases the airway response to RV infection.

METHODS

We compared the severity of RV type 16-induced colds in 2 groups of 10 subjects with allergic rhinitis. One group received 3 nasal challenges with allergen and the other received challenges with placebo over the week before nasal inoculation with RV type 16 (4000 tissue culture infective dose 50% per subject). Subjects kept symptom diaries and were assessed with spirometry, methacholine challenge, nasal lavage, and sputum induction on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, and 30 after inoculation.

RESULTS

The 2 groups developed equal rates of infection (90%), similar cold symptoms (Jackson score median [interquartile range], 11 [6-33] vs 20.5 [6-42] for allergen and placebo groups respectively, P =.54), and similar changes in cellular profile and in IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid and induced sputum after RV inoculation. The incubation period was significantly longer in the allergen group (2.5 [1-5.5] vs 1 [1-1] day, P =.03) and the duration of cold symptoms was shorter (5 [4-7] vs 8.5 [6-10] days, P =.008). We also found an inverse correlation between the percent of eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid before inoculation and the severity of cold symptoms (r = -0.58, P =. 008).

CONCLUSION

In subjects with allergic rhinitis, augmented nasal allergic inflammation before inoculation with RV type 16 does not worsen the severity of cold symptoms but delays their onset and shortens their duration.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Divisions of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0130, USA.

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cell Count
    Common Cold
    Double-Blind Method
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nasal Mucosa
    Nasal Provocation Tests
    Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
    Placebos
    Respiratory Function Tests
    Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
    Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
    Rhinovirus
    Severity of Illness Index
    Skin Tests
    Sputum
    Therapeutic Irrigation

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10808173

    Citation

    Avila, P C., et al. "Effects of Allergic Inflammation of the Nasal Mucosa On the Severity of Rhinovirus 16 Cold." The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 105, no. 5, 2000, pp. 923-32.
    Avila PC, Abisheganaden JA, Wong H, et al. Effects of allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa on the severity of rhinovirus 16 cold. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105(5):923-32.
    Avila, P. C., Abisheganaden, J. A., Wong, H., Liu, J., Yagi, S., Schnurr, D., ... Boushey, H. A. (2000). Effects of allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa on the severity of rhinovirus 16 cold. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 105(5), pp. 923-32.
    Avila PC, et al. Effects of Allergic Inflammation of the Nasal Mucosa On the Severity of Rhinovirus 16 Cold. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;105(5):923-32. PubMed PMID: 10808173.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa on the severity of rhinovirus 16 cold. AU - Avila,P C, AU - Abisheganaden,J A, AU - Wong,H, AU - Liu,J, AU - Yagi,S, AU - Schnurr,D, AU - Kishiyama,J L, AU - Boushey,H A, PY - 2000/5/16/pubmed PY - 2000/6/10/medline PY - 2000/5/16/entrez SP - 923 EP - 32 JF - The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology JO - J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. VL - 105 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Despite the strong association of asthma exacerbations with rhinovirus (RV) infection, inoculation of asthmatic subjects with RV only causes small changes in lower airway function, suggesting that RV infection is not itself sufficient to provoke asthma exacerbations. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to test whether allergic inflammation increases the airway response to RV infection. METHODS: We compared the severity of RV type 16-induced colds in 2 groups of 10 subjects with allergic rhinitis. One group received 3 nasal challenges with allergen and the other received challenges with placebo over the week before nasal inoculation with RV type 16 (4000 tissue culture infective dose 50% per subject). Subjects kept symptom diaries and were assessed with spirometry, methacholine challenge, nasal lavage, and sputum induction on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 15, and 30 after inoculation. RESULTS: The 2 groups developed equal rates of infection (90%), similar cold symptoms (Jackson score median [interquartile range], 11 [6-33] vs 20.5 [6-42] for allergen and placebo groups respectively, P =.54), and similar changes in cellular profile and in IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid and induced sputum after RV inoculation. The incubation period was significantly longer in the allergen group (2.5 [1-5.5] vs 1 [1-1] day, P =.03) and the duration of cold symptoms was shorter (5 [4-7] vs 8.5 [6-10] days, P =.008). We also found an inverse correlation between the percent of eosinophils in nasal lavage fluid before inoculation and the severity of cold symptoms (r = -0.58, P =. 008). CONCLUSION: In subjects with allergic rhinitis, augmented nasal allergic inflammation before inoculation with RV type 16 does not worsen the severity of cold symptoms but delays their onset and shortens their duration. SN - 0091-6749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10808173/Effects_of_allergic_inflammation_of_the_nasal_mucosa_on_the_severity_of_rhinovirus_16_cold_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0091-6749(00)80015-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -