Amyloidosis of the larynx: a clinicopathologic study of 11 cases.Mod Pathol. 2000 May; 13(5):528-35.MP
Laryngeal amyloidosis (LA) is uncommon and poorly understood, with limited long-term clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic studies in the literature. Eleven cases of LA were retrieved from the files of the Otorhinolaryngic-Head & Neck Tumor Registry from 1953 to 1990. The histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and follow-up were reviewed. All patients (three women and eight men) presented with hoarseness at an average age of 37.8 years. The lesions, polypoid or granular, measured an average of 1.6 cm and involved the true vocal cords only (n = 4), false vocal cord only (n = 1), or were transglottic (n = 6). An acellular, amorphous, eosinophilic material was present in the stroma, often accentuated around vessels and seromucous glands, which reacted positively with Congo red. A sparse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was present in all cases that demonstrated light chain restriction by immunohistochemistry in three cases (kappa = 2, lambda = 1). Serum and urine electrophoreses were negative in all patients. Treatment was limited to surgical excision, including a single laryngectomy. Six patients manifested either recurrent and/or multifocal/systemic disease: two patients with light chain restriction were dead with recurrent disease (mean, 11.1 years); two patients were dead with no evidence of disease (mean, 31.7 years); and two patients were alive, one with light chain restriction and recurrent and multifocal disease (41.6 years) and one with no evidence of disease after a single recurrence (43.4 years). The remaining five patients were either alive or had died with no evidence of disease an average of 32.4 years after diagnosis. No patient developed multiple myeloma or an overt B-cell lymphoma. LA is an uncommon indolent lesion that may be associated with multifocal disease (local or systemic). The presence of an associated monoclonal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and recurrent/multifocal disease in the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract of a few cases and the lack of development of a systemic plasma cell dyscrasia or overt systemic B-cell malignancy suggest that some LA may be the result of an immunocyte dyscrasia or tumor of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.