A dose-response study of prophylactic intravenous ephedrine for the prevention of hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery.Anesth Analg 2000; 90(6):1390-5A&A
We performed a randomized, double-blinded dose-finding study of IV ephedrine for prophylaxis for hypotension in 80 women who received an IV crystalloid preload and spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. One minute after the intrathecal injection, patients were given saline control or ephedrine 10, 20, or 30 mg IV for 30 s. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP) in the first 12 min after the spinal injection was greater in the 30-mg group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). Hypotension occurred in 7 patients (35%) in the 30-mg group compared with 19 (95%), 17 (85%), and 16 (80%) patients in the control and 10- and 20-mg groups, respectively (P < 0.0001). Maximum decrease in SAP was smaller in the 30-mg group (mean lowest SAP 87% of baseline, range 58%-105%) compared with other groups (P < 0.01). Reactive hypertension occurred in 9 patients (45%) in the 30-mg group (mean highest SAP 120% of baseline, range 104%-143%) compared with 2 (10%), 1 (5%), and 5 (25%) patients in the other groups (P = 0.009). Heart rate changes, total ephedrine requirement, incidence of nausea and vomiting, and neonatal outcome were similar among groups. The proportion of patients with umbilical arterial pH < 7.2 was 10.5%, 25%, 42%, and 22% in the control, 10-, 20-, and 30-mg groups, respectively (P = 0. 12). We conclude that the smallest effective dose of ephedrine to reduce the incidence of hypotension was 30 mg. However, this dose did not completely eliminate hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and fetal acidosis, and it caused reactive hypertension in some patients.
We investigated different doses of IV ephedrine as prophylaxis for hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery and found that the smallest effective dose was 30 mg. However, this dose did not completely eliminate hypotension, caused reactive hypertension in some patients, and did not improve neonatal outcome.