Seasonal changes in pyrethroid resistance in tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) populations during a three-year period in the delta area of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi.J Econ Entomol. 2000 Apr; 93(2):441-6.JE
Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), were collected from weeds at 71 locations in the delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi and tested with a discriminating dose bioassay for pyrethroid resistance in the spring (April-May) and again at the same locations in the fall (September-October) in 1995-1997. Percentage of mortality in the discriminating dose bioassay declined significantly (pyrethroid-resistance increased) from spring to fall by an average 18.7, 21.3, and 21.7% in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, respectively. Pyrethroid resistance declined significantly by 26.3% from the fall of 1995 to the spring of 1996 in Mississippi, but did not significantly decline in Arkansas (4.1%) and Louisiana (13.2%). Significant decreases in resistance occurred in all 3 states from the fall of 1996 to the spring of 1997 (17.1, 38.3, and 29.8% in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, respectively). Plant bugs from 2 locations (Indianola, MS, and Wainwright, LA) had multiple insecticide resistance to a carbamate, 2 pyrethroid, and 4 organophosphorus insecticides. However, resistance to the organophosphate acephate in plant bugs from both locations was not significant. Possible causes for the significant increases and declines in resistance from season to season are discussed.