Antihyperglycaemic and anti-oxidant properties of Andrographis paniculata in normal and diabetic rats.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2000 May-Jun; 27(5-6):358-63.CE
1. Oxidative stress is believed to be a pathogenetic factor in the development of diabetic complications. In the present study, we investigated the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata for antihyperglycaemic and anti-oxidant effects in normal and streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. 2. Normal and diabetic rats were randomly divided into groups and treated orally by gavage with vehicle (distilled water), metformin (500 mg/kg bodyweight) or the extract (400 mg/kg bodyweight), twice a day for 14 days. 3. At the end of the 14 day period, the extract, like metformin, significantly increased bodyweight (P < 0.01) and reduced fasting serum glucose in diabetic rats (P < 0.001) when compared with vehicle, but had no effect on bodyweight and serum glucose in normal rats. Levels of liver and kidney thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly increased (P < 0.0001, P < 0.01, respectively), while liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations were significantly decreased (P < 0.005) in vehicle-treated diabetic rats. Liver and kidney TBARS levels were significantly lower (P < 0.0001, P < 0.005, respectively), whereas liver GSH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in extract- and metformin-treated diabetic rats compared with vehicle-treated diabetic rats. Andrographis paniculata significantly decreased kidney TBARS level (P < 0.005) in normal rats. Hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were significantly lower in vehicle-treated diabetic rats compared with vehicle-treated normal rats. The extract, as well as metformin, significantly increased the activity of SOD and CAT, but had no significant effect on GSH-Px activity in diabetic rats. The extract and metformin did not produce significant changes in the activity of these anti-oxidant enzymes in normal rats. 4. Our results show that oxidative stress is evident in streptozotocin-diabetic rats and indicate that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata not only possesses an antihyperglycaemic property, but may also reduce oxidative stress in diabetic rats.