Resveratrol suppresses TNF-induced activation of nuclear transcription factors NF-kappa B, activator protein-1, and apoptosis: potential role of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation.J Immunol. 2000 Jun 15; 164(12):6509-19.JI
Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes, fruits, and root extracts of the weed Polygonum cuspidatum, exhibits anti-inflammatory, cell growth-modulatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. How this chemical produces these effects is not known, but it may work by suppressing NF-kappaB, a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of various genes involved in inflammation, cytoprotection, and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol on NF-kappaB activation induced by various inflammatory agents. Resveratrol blocked TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol also suppressed TNF-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB, and NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Suppression of TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation by resveratrol was not restricted to myeloid cells (U-937); it was also observed in lymphoid (Jurkat) and epithelial (HeLa and H4) cells. Resveratrol also blocked NF-kappaB activation induced by PMA, LPS, H2O2, okadaic acid, and ceramide. The suppression of NF-kappaB coincided with suppression of AP-1. Resveratrol also inhibited the TNF-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and abrogated TNF-induced cytotoxicity and caspase activation. Both reactive oxygen intermediate generation and lipid peroxidation induced by TNF were suppressed by resveratrol. Resveratrol's anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and growth-modulatory effects may thus be partially ascribed to the inhibition of activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and the associated kinases.